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Module 28 + 29

TermDefinition
language use of symbols to represent, transmit, and store meaning/information
symbols organized patterns of sound, visual representations, and movements.
meaning concepts, quantities, plans, identity, feelings, ideas, facts and customs.
Phonemes the smallest units of sound (vowels and consonants)
Morphemes units of meaning
grammer rules for using words, including semantics, definitions, connotations and syntax (how the order of words makes meaning)
language use of symbols to represent, transmit, and store meaning/information
symbols organized patterns of sound, visual representations, and movements.
meaning concepts, quantities, plans, identity, feelings, ideas, facts and customs.
Phonemes the smallest units of sound (vowels and consonants)
Morphemes units of meaning
grammer rules for using words, including semantics, definitions, connotations and syntax (how the order of words makes meaning)
receptive language associating sounds with facial movements, and recognizing when sounds are broken words (0-4 months) . Also dogs following commands
productive language babbling in multilingual sounds and gestures (4 mo). Also, many animals have "words": sounds, gestures, dances (bees) to communicate info
babbling sounds more like parents'/household language (10 mo)
One-word stage understanding and beginning to say many nouns (12 mo)
Two-word, telegraphic speech adding verbs and making sentences, but missing words (18-44 mo): Read Book, see bird
aphasia an impairment in the ability to produce or understand language (damage to brain)
Damage in broca's area (left frontal lobe): difficulty in putting words together into sentenced or even speaking single words, although a person can sing a song
damage in Wernicke's area (left temporal lobe) difficulty comprehending speech and producing coherent speech (don't monitor speech to see if it makes sense).
visual cortex receives written words as visual stimulation
Angular gyrus transforms visual representations into auditory code
motor cortex word is pronounced
Broca's area controls speech muscles via motor cortex
Wernicke's area interprets auditory code
Linguistic Determinism idea that our specific language determines how we think.
outcome simulation imagine getting an A, may shift your mood up or down, but will not improve your grade.
process stimulation imagined detailed actions of studying, does improve grades.
Intelligence tests series of questions and other exercises which attempt to assess people's mental abilities in a way that generates a numerical score, so that one person can be compared to another.
Intelligence "whatever intelligence tests measure"; ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
Charles Spearman performed factor analysis: people that did well in one area also did well in another (have high g: general intelligence)
factor analysis statistical technique that determines how different variables relate to each other; whether they form clusters
Thurstone Seven clusters of abilities: verbal comprehension, inductive reasoning, word fluency, spatial ability, memory, perceptual speed, numerical ability; people strong in one cluster tended to be stronger in other clusters.
"savant syndrome" having isolated islands of high ability amidst a sea of below-average cognitive and social functioning.
Gardner eight independent intelligences which include a broad range of skills beyond traditional school smarts => interpersonal, intrapersonal, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial, musical, logical-mathematical, linguistic, naturalist
Sternberg stress related to ability => practical intelligence, analytical intelligence, creative intelligence
practical intelligence expertise and talent that help to complete tasks and manage the complex challenges of everyday life
analytical intelligence solving a well-defined problem with a single answer
creative intelligence generating new ideas to help adapt to novel situations
creativity ability to produce ideas that are novel and valuable
convergent thinking left-brain activity involving zeroing in on a single correct answer.
divergent thinking ability to generate new ideas, new actions, and multiple options and answers
5 components of creativity- Sternberg creative environment, venturesome personality, intrinsic motivation, expertise, imaginative thinking
creative environment having support, feedback, encouragement, and time and space to think
venturesome personality tending to seek out new experiences despite risk, ambiguity, and obstacles
intrinsic motivation enjoying the pursuit of interests and challenge, w/o needing external direction or reward.
expertise possessing a well-developed base of knowledge
imaginative thinking having the ability to see new perspectives, combinations, and connections
social intelligence ability to understand and navigate social situations
emotional intelligence involves processing and managing emotional component of those social situations, including one's own emotions
perceiving emotions recognizing emotions in facial expressions, stories and even in music.
understanding emotions being able to see blended emotions, and to predict emotional states and changes in self and others
managing emotions modulating and expressing emotions in various situations
using emotions using emotions as fuel and motivation for creative, adaptive thinking
Created by: mariaramos2012