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Geography Terms

Weather/Climate

TermDefinition
Weather the state of the atmosphere at a place and time as regards heat, dryness, sunshine, wind, rain, etc.
Climate the weather conditions prevailing in an area in general or over a long period.
Meteorologist an expert in or student of meteorology; a weather forecaster.
Avalanche a mass of snow, ice, and rocks falling rapidly down a mountainside.
Climograph a graphical representation of basic climatic parameters, that is monthly average temperature and precipitation, at a certain location. It is used for a quick-view of the climate of a location.
Relief Precipitation is caused when masses of air pushed by wind are forced up the side of elevated land formations, such as large mountains. The lift of the air up the side of the mountain results i condensation and precipitation.
Erosion the process of eroding or being eroded by wind, water, or other natural agents.
Rain Shadow a region having little rainfall because it is sheltered from prevailing rain-bearing winds by a range of hills.
Drought a prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall; a shortage of water resulting from this.
Tornadoes a mobile, destructive vortex of violently rotating winds having the appearance of a funnel-shaped cloud and advancing beneath a large storm system.
Floods an overflowing of a large amount of water beyond its normal confines, especially over what is normally dry land.
Hurricanes a storm with a violent wind, in particular a tropical cyclone in the Caribbean. A wind of force 12 on the Beaufort scale
Tsunami a long high sea wave caused by an earthquake, submarine landslide, or other disturbance.
Earthquake a sudden and violent shaking of the ground, sometimes causing great destruction, as a result of movements within the earth's crust or volcanic action.
Reservoir an artificial lake (dam) built to store water for use in hydro, controlling floods and irrigation (for farming)
Water Table the level below which the ground is saturated with water.
Drainage Basin an area drained by a big river and smaller streams. Consider: A large lake that gets filled by a major river. This major river is filled by smaller streams and creeks.
Discharge Rate The amount of water that flows through a drainage basin. The discharge rate may change a lot from year to year depending on: a) overall weather conditions b) season c) human diversion (dam)
Moderating Effect water has this effect on nearby land temperatures
 

 



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