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The postganglionic parasympathetic neurons are _______(cholinergic/noradrenergic) cholinergic
The postganglionic sympathetic neurons are cholinergic _______(cholinergic/noradrenergic). noradrenergic
Ratio of preganglionic to postganglionic fibers in the parasympathetic NS 1:1 or 1:2(usually) 1:8000 (Auerbach plexus part of the ENS)
Ratio of preganglionic to postganglionic fibers in the sympathetic NS 1:20 to 1:200
Neurotransmission in the peripheral nervous system occurs in what two steps? axonal conduction and junctional transmission
An EPSP can result from: what? Influx of Na+ or Ca2+
An IPSP can result from: what? Influx of Cl- or eflux of K+
What is the difference between acetylcholinesterase and butylylcholinesterase? 1) Acetylcholinesterase (AchE), found in cholinergic neurons, neuromuscular junction, and erythrocytes. 2) Butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), found in the plasma and the liver.
What is the difference between an nicotinic receptor and a muscurinic one? Nicotinic- Ionotropic Muscurinic- metabotropic
Nn vs Nm Nn- in neuronal tissue Nm in Muscles
Muscurinic receptors 1 vs 2 vs 3 vs 4 vs 5 1,3,5= Gq 2,4= Gi
Gq vs Gi Gq= ^PLC-> ^IP3 and DAG= excitatory - Gi= decreasesd AC ^K+ channel efflux, or decrease cAMP -> inhibitory
---------Modulation of Cholinergic Transmission by Drugs---------------------- Modulation of Cholinergic Transmission by Drugs
Hemicholinium Blocks choline uptake
Vesamicol Prevents storage of Ach
Botulinus toxin Blocks release
Latrotoxin Causes explosive release
Ach, NE, nicotine, atropine, etc Modulate release acting on presynaptic receptors
Physostigmine, edrophonium Inhibits metabolism of Ach.
----postsynaptic processes------- ------postsynaptic processes------
Muscarine activates muscurinic receptors
atropine blocks muscurinic receptors
nicotine activates nicotinic receptors
mecamylamine blocks Nn receptors
tubocurarine blocks Nm receptors
______------------------------------ --------------------------------------------------
All heart receptors are of what kind? M2, which decrease everything except "conduction" and "refractoriness"
What substances are involved in catecholamine metabolism? MAO-B, and COMT. MAO has low substrate specificity and is in many neurons. COMT is in most other places, has high substrate specificity
Which adrenergic receptors are Gi/Go? What do these do? α2, D2. Gi=Opening of ligand-gated K+ channels or decrease cAMP G0=Blockade of voltage-gated Ca ++ channels
Which adrenergic receptors are Gs? What do these do? β1, β2, β3, D1. These decrease cAMP or
Which adrenergic receptors are Gq? What do these do? α1, ↑ phospholipase C ↑IP3/DAG - ↑ phospholipase A2 ↑ eicosanoid synthesis
Blocks NE synthesis Metyrosine
Prevents storage of NE Reserpine
Prevent release of NE Guanethidine
Promotes release of NE Tyramine Amphetamine
inhibits uptake of NE Cocaine Tricyclic antidepressants
Inhibits metabolism of NE MAO inhibitors
activates α1 receptors epinephrine
blocks α1 receptors prazosin
activates α2 receptor binding epinephrine
blocks α2 receptor binding Yohimbine
activates β1 receptor binding Dobutamine
blocks β1 receptor binding Metoprolol
activates β2 receptor binding Albuterol
blocks β2 receptor binding Butoxamine
Created by: nismail1



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