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Stack #206677

WGU Ethics II 2/2009

People are naturally competitive and need government to contain their natural strive for security. Hobbes Social Contract Theory
Theory proposed by Jeremy Bentham and James Mill - all actions should be directed at achieving the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Utilitarianism
1. Has problems when sentiment is involved2. Not enough support for individuals rights3. Happiness cannot be measured4. Cannot calculate all of the effects for all individuals Weaknesses of Utilitarianism
1. poor under-educated lower classes should count equally with the rich, educated upper class.2. Bentham utilitarian theory came directly out of his social concerns. Strengths of Utilitarianism
Halakha or Tora is known as ____________. Jewish Law
What religion uses the Torah? Judaism
A kind of other world pietism. Christ Against Culture
Christianity which casts a gospel glow over the existing order and hardly challenges it. Christ of Culture
Makes a sharp separartion between God's kindly rule in the church and his stern rule in public life. Christ and Culture in Paradox
Church seeks control over public life. Christ Above Culture
Seeks to influence but not necessarily control institutions. Christ Transforming Culture
Known for practical wisdom. Gandhian Ethics
perceives all ethics by reference to monastic ethics; extreme measures in the pursuit of ahisma or non-injury Jaina Ethics
Teaches principal of passive restraint. Founded in rigid, discriminatory class system, life affirming, rigidly authoritarian. Classical Hindu Ethics
Name three elements that constitute the theory of natural law. 1. The world is a natural order with values and purposes built into its very nature.2. Its the way things ought to be.3. Laws of reason which we are able to grasp because God has made us rational beings.
Things are morally good or bad or morally obligatory, permissable or prohibited, solely because of God's will and commands. Divine Theory
Name 3 Disadvantages of Virtues as an ethical standard. 1. more disagreement about which traits are virtues than there is about which actions are right.2. emphasizes character traits instead of actions.3. does not provide us with specific rules to guide our actions.
Name 3 advantages of Virtues as an ethical standard. 1. What kind of person should I be?2. Helps us explain how a wide variety of actions can be ethical.3. Allows for the whole spectrum of the human experience to influence ethical deliberation.
Aristotle said that virtue is a _____________. trait of character manifested in habitual action.
What replaced Divine Law? Moral Law
The right thing to do is follow the rules that rational self-interested people can agree to establish for their mutual benefit. Social Contract Theory
Our duty is to follow the rules that we would will to be universal laws, rules that we are willing to have followed by all people in all situations. Immanual Kant's Theory
Each person should only do what is in his or her best interest. Ethical Egoism
Involves a virtuous way of life by its relation to happiness. Aristotle's Theory
Hebrew Scriptures, Egyptian School Texts, Legend of Giglamesh, Egyptian Book of the Dead, Hummurabi's Code Earlist Known Writings
Theory of human nature, not an ethical theory; human nature to act out of self interest. Psychological Egoism
What are the 6 common values that all cultures share? 1. truthfulness2. prohibit murder3. welfare of cultural members4. mix of good and bad practices5. caring for the young6.Tolerable of other cultures
What is Autonomy? being in control of your own life
What is Categorical Imperative? A moral obligation that is imposed on us no matter the circumstances or our own desires.
Belief that morality is universal, eternal and unchanging. Moral Objectism
What is cultural realtivism? Belief that morality is relative to each individual culture, we cannot make universal moral claims like all murder is wrong.
Applying scripture to contemporary spcial issues is not good because ______________. it is often quoted without context, it does not yield answers to social problems, does not provide specific moral guidance
Must be rational, consistent with self interest Socrates Right Action
Cultural relativism in terms of the cultural differences argument 1. different societies have different moral codes 2. moral code determines what is right in that society3. no ethical standard can be used to judge that one moral code is better than another4. moral code of our own society has no special
Moral principle MUST BE Universalizable (Kant) One can will that everything act acording to it
Things NOT shared by different cultural societies 1. eating beef2. not committing infantcide
Claims against ethical egoism cannot help people resolve their conflicts among their interests.incorrectly assumes all moral judgements are products of logic.claims one individuals interests are more important than the interest of others.
INCONSISTENT WITH KANT true autonomy results from acting acording to desires, without regard to moral permissability.requires people to act to maximize their pleasure and minimize their pain.
CONSISTENT WITH KANT it is wrong to treat others as tools to obtain maximum happiness,people must recognize others capacity to give or withhold consent, one should NOT strive to benefit from one's interactions with others.
Weaknesses of Utilitarianism no special duties to loved ones, only future obligations are relevant, no personal rights
Strengths of Utilitarianism bases moral decisions only in the greater good, results of acts determine their goodness
"Virtue and Knowledge are the same thing""Justice cannot mean harming others""Evil and Vice are based on ignorance""Striving for good is the condition of all humans""The soul is a person's conscious personality" Socrates
this person focused on temperance, courage, reason and justice Plato
A person trained in all subjects but especially moral philosophy Philosopher King
Plato says a spirit has 3 parts, what are they? reason, spirit, appetite
What is the Golden Mean? the desirable middle between two extremes, between excess and inadequacy
focused on plato's 4 and added Generosity,Good Temper, Friendship, Self respect, Honor, Shame, Pride, Truthfulness Aristotle
Under Social Contract Theory, rulers serve by ___________________ the consent of the governed
Social Contract Theory is based on _____________. the idea of reciprocity
STRENGTHS of Social Contract Theory Constructs moral rules for harmonious living,Constructs moral rules that are in our best interests to follow, which is an added benefit, Rational people will not create rules that are too difficult or impossible to live by
STRENGTH of Social Contract Theory Allows people to live together in a moral world of limited altruism
WEAKNESSES of Social Contract Theory No clear or consistent definition of what is a moral rule or law,Does not resolve the question as to how much are we bound by laws of society, Does not address moral claims of those outside the social contract
a philosophical doctrine that says all knowledge is derived from our senses Empiricism
believed in God and the afterlife and that the pleasure or the rewards of the afterlife would balance any injustices on Earth John Locke
a consequentialist moral philosophy (ethics based on acting in whatever way results in the best consequences). Utilitarianism
OBJECTIONS to Utilitarianism wrongly elevates pleasure above other values, ignores distributive justice, wrongly assumes that ends justify the means, requires too much calculation.
Empiricism maintains that: humans are not born with innate knowledge.
very nearly the oldest religion on record. It is the third largest religious group in the world Hinduism
Beliefs like reincarnation (that a soul can be reborn into a new body after death) and karma (that the good and evil a person does will return either in this life or in a later one),vegetarians because of their belief in reincarnation Hinduism
Daoism sees living by The Way (Dao) as a path to inner harmony, peace, and longevity
Many dieties, infinite spirit. all things are one. Caste system, peolpe are at many different stages of development Hinduism
No god, eternal universe, dualistic, 2 sides to people & nature, non-violent Jainism
Hindu based ideology, non-violent at ALL times even if being physically harmed Gandhianism
No god, change is eternal, suffering, rebirth, desire causes suffering Buddhism
What ideas did Aristotle advocate? Honesty in speech is always a virtue.Virtue is the mean between excess and deficiency.People need courage.No one would choose to live without friends.
The Divine Command Theory states that "morally wrong" means forbidden by god. What problems does this theory present? Concepts of good and evil are dependent on god's rules.Humans should be truthful only because god commands it.
What are distinctive features of UTILITARIANISM as a form of modern moral philosophy? examines consequences versus intentions of actions.greatest happiness for greatest number of people.yields conclusions that do not conform to common sense.
What is the moral theory of Thomas Hobbes Social Contract? A person's rights flows from mutually beneficial constraints.
What supports Classical Utilitarian Theory? A moral act produces the greatest happiness.The principal of utility determines morality.No act may be prohibited unless it causes pain to another person.Laws should promote the greatest happiness of all.
What does NOT support Classical Utilitarian Theory? God is in control and establishes morality.It is wrong to kill innocent people.
After a fair trial a person is convicted of murder. Which assertions are consistent with Bentham? The greater the offense , the greater the punishment.Punishments should be adaptable to fit the crime.The amount of punishment should never be more than the minimum needed to make it effective.
What is the main premise of the cultural differences argument for moral relativism? not all societies believe in the same morals and standards
Name 3 things that reflect the theory of Cultural Relativism. discourages intolerance of differing moral codes, questions unreasoned assumptions about right and wrong, encourages people to separate feelings from moral judgements.
What is the essential revision to Simple Subjectivism offerred by emotovism? attitude/emotions
Describe a psychological egoists interpretation of human motivation. actions that appear to be altruistic are motivated by self-interest, actions are expressions of what makes one feel good, people will do what they most want to do, people will do what is necessary to feel good.
Created by: mommyjones3