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Genetics Glossary

QuestionAnswer
Gene a section of chromosomes which code traits
Alleles Alternative forms of a gene eg. brown/blue eyes, dominant/recessive
Chromosomes A collection of genes. Found in nucleus of a cell
D.N.A The molecule is what a chromosomes are made of, can replicate
Heterozygous A pair of alleles where there is a dominant or recessive allele
Homozygous A pair of alleles where either both genes are recessive or both genes are dominant
Dominant A gene whose characteristic always appears even if only one copy is inherited
Recessive A gene whose characteristic only appears if copies are inherited from both parents
Mutation A 'mistake' in a gene or chromosome which only occurs when it replicated
Gamete Are reproductive cells, contain half the number of chromosomes of a body cell. Animal sperm and egg, Plant pollen and ovule
Mitosis Type of cell division that occurs in body cells. Chromosomes replicate so that the two new cells both have the same genetic composition as original cell
Meiosis Cell division produces gametes, chromosomes divide so that each new cell has half the number of the original cell.
Genotype Genes that a individual has
Phenotype That characteristics that a individual has as a result of their gene
Asexual Reproduction With only one parent, off springs a clones of their parent
Sexual Reproduction With two parents and there is genetic recombination
Clones Clones are individuals with same genetic make up. Identical twins are clones
Continuous Variation When there are any number of variations eg. height, weight
Discontinuous Variation When there are a limited number of variation eg. ear lobe, eye colour blood groups
Created by: Stephanie.oliver