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AP Psych Ch. 4 Vocab

Developing Through the Life Span - AP Psychology, Chapter 4

Developmental psychology The study of physical, cognitive, and social changes from conception to death
Zygote A fertilized egg
Embryo The inner cells of the zygote after it attaches to the uterine wall (two weeks after conception to two months)
Fetus From nine weeks after conception to birth
Critical period Most of the first trimester, during which the embryo is susceptible to toxic exposures
Teratogens Harmful agents, such as viruses and drugs, that can cause birth defects
Fetal alcohol syndrome Physical and cognitive abnormalities caused by heavy drinking during pregnancy
PKU A birth defect that causes an amino acid called phenylalanine to build up in the body - can cause mental retardation, seizures, and inability to metabolize certain proteins
Rooting When babies turn their heads and open their mouths in response to a touch on the cheek
Maturation A sequence of biological growth processes
Habituation A decrease in response to a stimulus after repeated exposure
Temperament The combination of traits that make up a person's personality and reactivity
Down Syndrome A genetic disorder occurring when someone has an extra copy of chromosome 21
Heritability A measure of how much of a phenotype can be attributed to genes and genetic diversity
Imprinting The process of forming social bonds in animals (Konrad Lorenz experimented on ducklings; they bonded with the first moving thing they saw)
Schemas Mental molds and concepts shaped by experiences
Assimilation Interpreting information in terms of our current understanding (babies might call all animals dogs)
Accommodation Adjusting our schemas to fit new experiences (babies learning there are other types of animals besides dogs)
Piaget's four stages of cognitive development 1. Sensorimotor - experiencing the world through senses and actions (birth-2) 2. Preoperational - using intuitive reasoning rather than logical (2-7) 3. Concrete operational - thinking logically (7-11) 4. Formal operational - abstract reasoning (12+)
Object permanence The awareness that objects continue to exist when not percieved
Conservation Properties like mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in form
Telegraphic speech Early speech when children only use essential words (Car go)
Attachment An emotional tie with another person
Stranger anxiety The fear of strangers in children
Parenting styles 1. Authoritarian - parents set rules and expect obedience 2. Permissive - parents submit to children's desires and rarely punish 3. Authoritative - both demanding and responsive, set rules but explain and discuss them
Erik Erikson's stages of psychosocial development 1. Basic trust vs. mistrust 0-1 2. Autonomy / shame 2-3 3. Initiative / guilt 4-6 4. Industry / inferiority 7-11 5. Identity / role confusion 12-18 6. Intimacy / isolation 19-35 7. Generativity / stagnation 36-64 8. Ego integrity / despair 65+
Harry Harlowe's study on Rhesus monkeys Monkeys preferred cloth "mothers" even when wire ones provided nourishment
Kohlberg's theory of moral development 1. Preconventional morality - doing good to avoid punishment/be rewarded 2. Conventional morality - caring for others and upholding laws/rules 3. Post-conventional morality - believing in what is right and wrong based on a set of morals
Menarche The beginning of the menstrual cycle
Menopause The end of the menstrual cycle
Primary sex characteristics Structures directly concerned with reproduction
Secondary sex characteristics Sex-specific changes that happen during puberty that aren't essential to reproduction
Sandra Scarr Found that children are fine when raised in high-quality situations away from their biological parents
Crystallized intelligence Accumulated knowledge, increases with age
Fluid intelligence The ability to reason quickly and abstractly, decreases slowly up to age 75, then increases, especially after age 85
Social clock The "right" time to leave home, get a job, get marries, etc. based on your culture
K├╝bler-Ross stages of death/dying 1. Denial 2. Anger 3. Bargaining 4. Depression 5. Acceptance
Self-concept Our thoughts/feelings about ourselves, our sense of identity and self-worth
Created by: emilyjane1221