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Neuroanatomy II

Development of Gait

What are CPG's? Central Pattern Generators
What do CPG's control? Locomotion
Where are CPG's located? Brain Stem or Spinal Cord
What are CPG's believed to organize during gate? the activation and firing sequence of muscles
What affects the emergence and refinement of gait? ROM, strength, bone structure and composition and body comp.
What is the age of an immature walker? <2.5 yrs
What is the age of a mature walker? 3+ yrs
What are the main differences between an immature and a mature walker? single limb stance, walking velocity, cadence, step length, pelvic span to ankle spread
Do fatter or skinnier infants achieve locomotion faster? skinnier
From birth to six months body fat rises from __% to __% of body mass. 12 to 25
What has the fastest rate of growth in the first few months of life? extremities
How many degrees of antetorsion is an infant born with? 30-50 degrees
When a child assumes erect posture, what is responsible for reducing femoral anteversion(antetorsion)? femoral torsion
When does the greatest decrease in femoral anteversion occur? between 8 months and 2 years
What is the adult value of femoral anteversion? 5-15 degrees
When is the adult value of femoral anteversion normally achieved? by age 15
Wide abduction, external rotation, and flexion at hips, bowed legs, and everted heel positions all characterize what? supported walking
When would you expect to see supported walking? birth-9 months
The visual, vestibular and proprioceptive systems are working together to bring the center of mass back to a stable position after perturbations during what time span? birth-9 months
At 9-15 months, LE alignment and body structure are characterized by what? wide BOS, Hip Abd flexion and slight external rotation, and mild tibial internal torsion.
COM is closer to head and upper trunk when? 9-15 months
What kind of stability is achieved first? mediolateral
Why is BOS wide at onset of ambulation? for stability and structural reasons
Are postural adjustments during locomotor phase of gait present at initiation of gait? no
How are postural adjustments made at 9-15 months? by movement of the entire body
What is believed to be a critical variable for independent locomotion during 9-15 months? Development of sufficient extensor strength
When does the tibiofemoral angle in the frontal plane resolve? 18 months
When does heel strike emerge, but is not consistent? 18 months
When does COM begin to change from near the head to lower towards the LE? 18-24 months
When is a consistent heel strike seen? 24 months of age
When do the joint angles associated with walking mature to adult pattern? 3-3.5 yrs
When does the tibiofemoral angle show maximum valgus alignment? 3-3.5 yrs
By what age are gait patterns practically fully matured? 7 yrs
When does tibiofemoral angle returne to normal? 7 yrs
When is COM at the level of 3rd lumbar vertebrae? 7 yrs
When does child experience a period of disequilibrium, where they become more clumsy due to rapid growth? 4-6 yrs
Know the 8 phases of gait. Intial contact (IC), Loading response (LR), midstance (MST), Terminal stance (TS), Preswing (PS), Initial swing (IS), Midswing (MS), Terminal swing (TS)
Created by: txst spr 2009



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