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Earthquakes

TermDefinition
Earthquake A sudden and violent shaking of the ground, sometimes causing great destruction
Crust The tough outer part of the Earth.
Fault A break in the Earth's crust that was cused by an earthquake.
Mantle The region of the earth's interior between the crust and the core, believed to consist of hot, dense silicate rocks
Lithosphere The rigid outer part of the earth, consisting of the crust and upper mantle.
Lithospheric Plates Regions of Earth's crust and upper mantle that are fractured into plates that move across a deeper plasticine mantle.
Seismiologists Scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.
P-waves P-waves are a type of body wave, called seismic waves in seismology, that travel through a continuum and are the first waves from an earthquake to arrive at a seismograph.
S-waves An S wave, or shear wave, is a seismic body wave that shakes the ground back and forth perpendicular to the direction the wave is moving.
Moment-Magnitude Scale The moment magnitude scale (abbreviated as MMS; denoted as MW or M) is used by seismologists to measure the size of earthquakes in terms of the energy released.
Mercalli Scale The Mercalli intensity scale is a seismic scale used for measuring the intensity of an earthquake.
Seismic Waves Seismic waves are waves of energy that travel through the Earth's layers, and are a result of an earthquake, explosion, or a volcano that gives out low-frequency acoustic energy.
Magnitude The level of shaking from the earthquake.
Seismograph An instrument that measures and records details of earthquakes, such as force and duration.
Liquefaction Liquefaction is a phenomenon in which the strength and stiffness of a soil is reduced by earthquake shaking or other rapid loading.
Flexible Pipe Flexible pipes bend as energy passes through them, greatly reducing damage.
Aftershock Smaller erthquakes after the major earthquake that could be hours, days, or even months after.
Tsunami A tsunami, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.
Base Isolator Base Isolators separate or isolate from its foundation and prevent some energy from the earthquake entering the building.
Shear Core Walls A shear wall transfers some of a quake’s energy from roofs and floors to the building foundation.
Tension Ties These devices firmly “tie” the floors and ceilings of a building to the walls. Tension ties absorb and scatter earthquake energy and thus reduce damage.
Cross Bracing Steel Cross Braces are placed between stories to stiffen a building’s frame and absorb during energy an earthquake.
Mass Damper These are things that work like the shock absorbs in a car to absorb some of the energy of seismic waves.
Compression It is the stress component perpendicular to a given surface, such as a fault plane, that results from forces applied perpendicular to the surface or from remote forces transmitted through the surrounding rock.
Tension Apply a force to (something) that tends to stretch it.
Stress Pressure or tension exerted on a material object.
Strike-Slip Fault Strike-slip faults have a different type of movement than normal and reverse faults.
Normal Fault A normal fault drops rock on one side of the fault down relative to the other side. Take a look at the side that shows the fault and arrows indicating movement.
Reverse Fault Along a reverse fault one rocky block is pushed up relative to rock on the other side.
Shearing Shear stress is the stress component parallel to a given surface, such as a fault plane, that results from forces applied parallel to the surface or from remote forces transmitted through the surrounding rock.
San Andreas Fault The San Andreas Fault is a continental transform fault that extends roughly 1300 km (810 miles) through California.
Plateau An area of relatively level high ground.
Hanging Wall Hanging Wall is the block positioned over the fault, the Foot Wall is the block positioned under it.
Footwall the block of rock that lies on the underside of an inclined fault or of a mineral deposit.
Anticline Anticlines are folds in which each half of the fold dips away from the crest.
Syncline Synclines are folds in which each half of the fold dips toward the trough of the fold.
Asthenosphere The upper layer of the earth's mantle, below the lithosphere, in which there is relatively low resistance to plastic flow and convection is thought to occur.
Inner Core The Earth's inner core is the Earth's innermost part.
Outer Core The outer core of the Earth is a liquid layer about 2,300 km thick and composed of iron and nickel that lies above Earth's solid inner core and below its mantle.
Lithosphere The rigid outer part of the earth, consisting of the crust and upper mantle.
Created by: 1964112260