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Fallacies

TermDefinition
Appeal to Pity use of guilt and sympathy to distract the audience from the facts
Red Herring use misleading or unrelated evidence as a distraction to support a conclusion
Scare Tactics try to frighten people into agreeing with the arguer by threatening them or predicting unrealistic dire consequences
Bandwagon encourage an audience to agree with the writer because everyone else is; popular appeal
Slippery Slope suggests that one thing will lead to another, and another, and another, oftentimes to disastrous results; exaggerated cause and effect
False Dilemma reduce complicated issues to only two possible courses of action--two choices
Appeal to tradition when it assumed that something is better or correct simply because it is older, traditional, or "has always been done this way"
False Authority asks audiences to agree with the claim of the writer based simply on the authority of another person who may not be fully qualified
Substituting Personal Authority for Evidence occurs when someone offers personal testimony as proof instead of actual evidence of the claim
Guilt by association calls someone's character into question by examining the character of that person's associates
Dogmatism shuts down discussion by asserting that the speaker's beliefs are the only acceptable ones
Genetic Fallacy a conclusion is suggested based solely on something or someone's origin rather than its current meaning or context
Ad Hominem arguments attack a person's character rather than that person's reasoning in their argument
Tu Quoque when one attempts to defend oneself from criticism by turning that critique back on the accuser--using hypocrisy or "two wrongs make a right"
Strawman set up and dismantle easily refutable arguments in order to misrepresent an opponent's argument--twisting words
Hasty Generalization draws conclusions from very little evidence
False Cause confusing chronology with causation: one event can occur after another (or at the same time) and not be caused by the first
Begging the Question occurs when a writer simply restates the claim in a different way in order to support the conclusion; such an argument is circular--it "argues in circles"
Faulty Analogy an inaccurate, inappropriate or misleading comparison between two things
Appeal to Ignorance an argument for or against something based on the lack of evidence for/against it
Appeal to nature suggesting that something must be good because it is natural, or bad because it is not natural
Created by: MissSlattery
 

 



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