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Neuroanatomy II

Musculoskeletal Development and Adaptation

A position in which the distal segment of the joint is directed laterally is? Valgum
A position in which the distal segment of the joint is directed medially is? Varum
A twist within the shaft of a long bone, along its longitudinal axis is? Torsion
This occurs when the femoral neck is angled anteriorly to the transcondylar axis of the femur. Antetorsion
A positional change in which either the acetabulum or the head an neck of the femur are directed anteriorly, relative to the frontal plane is called? Anteversion
Embryonic myoblasts arise from ______? mesodermal cells
Embryonic myoblasts differentiate into ________? myotubes
What are myotubes? immature, multinucleate tubular structures
What are the two distinct types of myotubes? primary, secondary
When can primary myotubes be seen? 5 wks gestation
Do primary myotubes develop and differentiate with or without neural influence? without
What type of muscle fibers do primary myotubes become? mainly Type 1(slow twitch)
When can secondary myotubes be seen? several weeks after primary myotubes
Are secondary myotubes dependent on neural input? yes
What happens if there is no neural input for secondary myotubes? they will be smaller, fewer in number and malformed
What type of fibers to secondary myotubes become? type II muscle fibers(fast twitch)
When do myotubes fuse and form muscle fibers? By 20 weeks GA
When are ACH receptors dispersed in the myotubular membrane? By 8 weeks GA
What is a motor unit? Motoneuron and the muscle fiber it innervates
What does the presence of motor activity indicate? a viable connection of the motor unit
Skeletal and Articular Structures Arise from which layer? mesodermal layer
What cells condense to form templates for the skeleton? Mesenchymal
What are the two distinct processes of bone formation? endochondral and intramembranous ossification.
What are the only bones that dont form via endochondral ossification? skull, clavicle and mandible.
What form of ossification is this....Collagenous & elastic fibers are deposited on mesenchymal models to form cartilaginous models. Bone minerals are deposited on these models, gradually replacing cartilage via ossification? endochondral ossification
What form of ossification is this....Occurs directly in the mesenchymal model, mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblasts then deposit a matrix called osteoid tissue, tissue organized into bone as calcium phosphate is deposited.? intramembranous ossification
When does ossification at the primary ossification centers occur? at the end of embryonic period(8 wks ga)
What are primary ossification centers? diaphysis(body) of bone
By birth, are diaphysis ossified? almost
What are the ends of bones called? epiphysis
The epiphysis remain _______. cartilaginous
When does ossification begin in the epiphyses of bone? during early childhood
Where does long bone grow in length? at the epiphyseal plate
Where does bone proliferation occur? at the diaphyseal side of the bone
When are most bones fully ossified? by age 20
When are basic structures of the joint formed? by 6-8 wks GA
What influences the shape of joints? forces of mvmt and compression
Growth and shape of the skeleton are affected by? genetic coding, nutrition, and mechanical forces over time.
Can mechanical forces such as muscle pull and weight bearing cause skeletal adaptations? yes
Once the cartilaginous template is formed does the basic shape of the skeletal system change? no
What can cause natural and atypical angular changes, and what happens if these forces are too great or too small? compression, tension and shear forces at epiphyseal plate\the rate of growth is diminished
Growth is stimulated by areas of _______ and diminished in areas of _________. tension,compression
What leads to torsional twisting of bone? shear forces
At birth there how many degrees of medial torsion of the tibia? 5
In adulthood there is how many degrees of lateral torsion of the tibia? 18-47
At birth, an infants knees are _____? bow legged(genu varum)
What age is neutral knee alignment reached? 1-2 years
When does genu valgum reacjhits peak? 2-4 years of age
Females typically have slight ________(valgum or verum). valgum
Males typically have slight ________(valgum or verum). verum
Created by: txst spr 2009
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