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Unit 4 Science Notes

pure substance same composition throughout; examples are silver, gold, oxygen.
compound chemically combined, changes properties, set ratio; examples are water, carbon dioxide, sodium chloride.
mixture two substances physically combined, same identities, not in a set ratio.
heterogeneous mixture see different parts; examples are pizza toppings, trail mix, skittles.
homogeneous mixture looks the same throughout; examples are mustard, salt water.
solution very well mixed, small particles, homogeneous; examples are solid- alloy, liquid- kool-aid, gas- air.
alloy adds strength and resistance.
suspension type of mixture, particles are not the same, heterogeneous, particles are large enough to settle to the bottom; "shake well before using."
colloid particles are in between the sizes of a solution and suspension, particles are large enough to scatter light but small enough to not settle; examples are fog, milk, eggs, butter.
solubility ability to dissolve.
Factors Affecting Solutions temperature- increase temp,/increase solubility, pressure- gas, surface area- exposing more particles to the solvent, agitation- stir, shake, mix, types of materials- like dissolves like.
solvent doing the dissolving.
solute being dissolved.
acid sour taste, react with metals and carbonates, corrosive (eats away), turn blue litmus paper red, H+, pH of 0-7.
pH scale 0 end- strong acid, near 7- weak acid, 7- neutral, 14 end- strong base, near 7- weak base.
pH power of Hydrogen
base taste bitter, feel slippery (like soap), turn red litmus paper blue, can be just as dangerous as an acid, OH-, pH of 7-14.
molarity number of moles of a solute in the volume of a solution; moles/volume of solution.
Neutralization reaction between an acid and a base; products- water and salt.
saturated holding the max. amount of solute at a given temperature.
unsaturated can continue to hold more solute.
supersaturated holding more solute that a saturated solute by heating it up.
insolubility not able to dissolve; examples are oil and water (nonpolar and polar.)
Created by: S730503