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pharmacology

QuestionAnswer
phamacology is the study of source, nature, chemistry preparation, uses, actions and properties of drugs and their effects on living organisms
pharamaceuticals also called medicines, drugs, medical drugs
medical drugs are used to prevent, diagnose and treat diseases and to relieve pain
drugs a substance or biologic that can affect the structure or function of the budy and is maintained by an official pharmacopoeia or formulary
official pharmacopoeia a database or compilation describing drugs chemicals, and medicinal preparations
official pharmacopoeia is maintained by a governing body or organazational body such as American Hospital formulary service published by american society of hospital pharmacists
The study of pharmaceuticals is divided into what categories medicinal chemistry chemotherapy toxicology pharmacokinetics pharmacodynamics molecular pharmacology
medicinal chemistry is new drug syntheses
chemotherapy drugs that destroy micro organisms, parasites, or malignant cells
toxicology study of harmful effects of drugs and chemicals on the body
pharmacokinetics mathematical description of drug disposition overtime
pharmacodynamics study of drug effects on the body including bodily absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs
molecular pharmacology interaction of drugs and subcellular entities
Name of the admisistration that regulates decisions to allow sale and distribution of medications US Food and Drug Administration FDA.
the FDA regulates sale of what medicines sold with a prescription, behind the counter and over the counter OTC
All drugs have three names chemical generic brand or trade
chemical name specifies the chemical molecular or elemental makeup of the drug. Rarely used.
generic name name that can be used by any company. derived from the chemical name. Usually begins with a lower case letter.
is generic the same as brand name drugs in dosage, safety, strength, how it is taken, quantity, quality, performance and the intended use? yes
brand or trade name is the property of the company who owns the name. has propriety, trademark-protected name or registered brand name. Usually begins with a capital letter.
receptor target substance on the cellular surface or within a cell
what do drugs interact with when entering the body a receptor. may work on more than one receptor
the action where and how long a drug combines with tissues
drug's response is the desired and beneficial effect on the body
biotransformation when a drug is chemically changed in the body
tolerance drug effects dimish over time. more of the drug is needed to achieve the same effect as treatment continues
addiction is dependence psychologically and physiologically to the drug.
contraindications the use of a drug in a manner which is dangerous and ill-advised
resistance is the lack of beneficial response. what used to be effective is no longer
drug abuse use of any drug in a way that deviates from the manner in which it was prescribed
drug addiction is caused bu excessive or continued use of habit-forming drugs
drug overdoses any drug taken that exceeds the optimal dose is an overdose. can lead to adverse effects ranging from mild reactions to severe system damage to death.
drug underdosing refers to taking less than is prescribed
idiosyncractic responses (idiosyncrasy) unpredictable drug toxicity. every patient has unique idiosyncratic response to drug therapy
factors that influence idiosyncratic responses age, weight, diet/nutrition, genetics, ethnicity, pathophysiology, immunity, psychology and environment
chromobiology is the study of body rhythms
chromopharmacology study of the effect of such body rhythms on the effectiveness of drugs
pharmacokinetics describes what the body does to the drugs
pharmacodynamics describes what the drug does to the body
Drug interactions occur when one drug interacts with another drug you are taking or when your medications interact with what you eat or drink.
Drug interactions can change the way your medications act in your body they can make your medications less effective or they can cause unexpected and potentially dangerous side effects
Adverse reactions are any harmful, unintended effect of a medication in normal therapeutic use and that causes significant, sometimes life-threatening conditions
Multiple drugs may have additional interactions Additive Action Antagonistic Synergistic Potentiation
Additive Action The combination of two drugs is equal to the sum of the effects of each, then the drugs are called additive. 10% tumor kill plus 20% tumor kill gives a 30% tumor kill
Antagonistic when two drugs give less than the additive effect (1 + 1 = 0)
Synergistic The drugs cause an effect greater than the sum of the individual effects of the drugs. Synergism means the drugs not only enhance their effect, but greatly enhance or almost multiply the effects of the drugs (1 + 1 = 5)
Potentiation This means drug a enhances the effect of drug b into capital B or substantially increases the action of drug B.(a + b = B)
Allergy and hypersensitivity drug reactions can range from a simple skin rash or itch (urticaria) to a life-threatening anaphylaxis
Anaphylaxis s the exaggerated hypersensitivity reaction to a previously encountered drug or foreign protein
Drug toxicity is the poisonous and potentially dangerous effects of drugs
an example of an unpredictable type of drug toxicity Idiosyncrasy
idiosyncrasy Any unexpected effect that appears in the patient after drug administration
Iatrogenic is an effect caused by treatment. This iatrogenic effect can occur as a result of mistakes or unrecognized individual sensitivity
Side effects are toxic effects resulting from drug usage. All drugs have side effects, even aspirin. Side effects are reactions to or the consequence of taking a particular medication, for example, chemotherapy drugs often produce nausea vomiting and alopecia
drug administration Providing a drug to a patient is called
dose or a unit measured amount of drug. sometimes called a unit dose
local effect (topical) a drug’s effect stays at the site of administration
systemic effect If a drug acts on many sites away from the administration site
Drugs can also have more than one effect? yes
The Food and Drug Administration lists over 100 specific drug administration routes name some oral, subcuteanous, rectal, vaginal
Most drug administration routes fall into three broad categories Gastrointestinal/Enteral Parenteral Topical/Localized
Gastrointestinal/Enteral Applied via the digestive tract. The resulting effect is systemic. most commonly administered orally. drugs have a resulting systemic effect and are absorbed through the digestive tract
Enteral refers to anything involving the alimentary tract, from the mouth to the rectum.
There are four enteral routes of administration: oral, sublinqual, buccal, and rectal.
Parenteral Application by any means other than digestive tract, but generally understood as the injectable method of application. The resulting effect is systemic. includes most needle injections, into the veins or arteries, into the muscles, or into the spine.
Topical/Localized routes that do not use the alimentary tract, for example, vaginal, inhalation, otic, nasal, inhaled, trandermal, to name a few. The administration of these medications is localized and usually has limited systemic effects
Otic means ear; also called auricular
Drugs can be administered directly into the ear via a dropper
Carbamide peroxide drops help soften, loosen, and remove earwax
corticosteroid acetic acid. relieves redness, itching, and swelling
antibiotic prevent, inhibit or attack the infection
Ophthalmic administration usually refers to eye drops
Intravitreal administration is much less common and is accomplished via a needle into the vitreous of the eye
vasoconstrictor constrict or tighten small, superficial blood vessels of the eye, making them small enough you can no longer see them, making the “red” disappear
conjunctiva is the mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and is continued over the forepart of the eyeball
Conjunctivitis inflammation of the conjunctiva
Local anesthetics deaden the nerves in and around the teeth and can be applied via injection, a swish, a spray, or a gel.
Most drugs for dental issues have a what type of effect local
Carbamide peroxide gel is applied directly to the teeth, making them become whiter and brighter. (Interestingly, carbamide peroxide is the same medication applied to the ear canal for wax buildup.)
Inhalation administration involves the taking in of air, or of breathing in a drug. The drug when inhaled affects the airway and lungs directly, or is absorbed through the lungs for a systemic effect
A nebulizer is device used to administer medications in the form of a mist that is inhaled into the lungs.
how does nebulizer work nebulizer takes the liquid form of a medicine and pumps oxygen through it, turning it into a vapor, which is more easily inhaled into the lungs to provide faster relief.
The most common medication administered via inhalation with a systemic effect is anesthesia
General anesthesia is for pain control, often during surgery, and is characterized by unconsciousness, muscle relaxation, and a total loss of sensation throughout the entire body
General anesthesia is administered using using either a face mask or an endotracheal tube
endotracheal tube is a catheter inserted into the patient’s trachea to provide or maintain an airway
nitrous oxide Also called laughing gas. This anesthetic relieves pain and causes relaxation and forgetfulness but usually without putting a patient under, often used in dental offices
desflurane A potent inhalational anesthetic that is used during surgery to accomplish general anesthesia. Its brand name is Suprane
Topical/Localized – Skin Applying medication to a specific area of the skin, or to a wound, to anesthetize it, clean it, or otherwise aid in healing is a way to topically administer some medications
Intranasal administration of medications involves using the inside of the nose as an administration route. Topical drug administration using the intranasal route is primarily to deal with medical problems related to the nose
Vaginal topical drugs are generally administered in the form of a cream or suppository
Enteral means relating to or inside the intestines
drugs administered enterally have an intended systemic effect
Enteral medications are assimilated into the body through the gastrointestinal system, and the primary method for getting them into the body is through the mouth
example of enteral administration that bypasses the mouth gastroduodenal feeding tube
few different types of feeding tubes nasogastric tube G-tube jejunostomy tube
nasogastric tube Also called an NG tube, the NG tube is passed through the nose, down the esophagus, and into the stomach
G-tube A gastric or a gastrostomy feeding tube is inserted via a small incision directly into the stomach
PEG) tube. percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube. similar to G-tube. also inserted (usually via laparoscopy) for feeding
jejunostomy tube The jejunostomy tube smaller than a gastric tube and, is inserted into the jejunum instead of the stomach
Most drugs administered via the rectum have what type of effect systemic and are generally in the form of a suppository or an enema
suppository is a small plug or cone of medicine inserted in a body cavity other than the mouth (specifically the rectum) and designed to melt at body temperature, being absorbed into the surrounding soft mucosa.
A suppository is considered enteral because they are assimilated through the digestive tract
The trade name suppository for treating constipation is spelled Dulcolax
The generic name for a suppository for treating constipation is bisacodyl
A common ingredient in suppositories to treat constipation is glycerin
LA long acting
SR sustained release
ER extended release
CR controlled release
XL extended release
Enteral – Buccal and Sublingual The mouth is still one of the easiest and least invasive routes of drug administration
Buccal refers to the area inside the cheek. The buccal area has large area of smooth muscle that allows for sustained delivery
buccal enteral administration the drug is placed between the upper gums and the cheek. Traditionally this has been in the form of a patch. but in recent years, tablets have been developed for buccal mucosa delivery
nicotine gum Delivers doses of nicotine to the blood-vessel-rich areas of the mouth
testosterone A male hormone, used to treat testosterone deficiency in men, marketed as Striant
Sublingual refers to the area under the tongue near many blood vessels
permeable capable of being penetrated, particularly by a liquid or a gas
The area underneath the tongue is more permeable
Sublingual enteral administration means that the medication is placed under the tongue and is one of the fastest ways for a drug to get into the body systemically
Sublingual parenteral administration bypasses the gastrointestinal system, and it is both assimilated quicker and causes fewer breakdowns or change in the chemistry of the drug itself.
A brand name drug used to treat opioid dependence is Subutex
A generic drug used to treat opioid dependence is buprenorphine SL
A vasodilator used to dilate the blood vessels, which helps to both prevent and alleviate heart pain isosorbide dinitrate SL
A vasodilator that relaxes blood vessels, easing the workload of the heart, often given for angina or chest pain nitroglycerin SL
Parenteral Intravenous administration involves injecting medication directly into a vein using a needle and syringe. n its simplest form a syringe containing the drug is attached to a hollow needle, and the drug is injected directly into a vein, generally a vein in the arm.
A peripheral IV line consists of a short catheter inserted into any vein not in the chest or abdomen. It’s usually a hand or arm vein,
Central IV line or a central venous catheter placed into a large vein, the superior or inferior vena cava, or even within the atrium of the heart itself. the medication burns less when added to the line
When a patient will require intravenous access for a long time period, a central line can be inserted through a PICC or peripherally inserted central catheter.
PICC line peripherally inserted central catheter
The PICC line is inserted through a vein in the arm and threaded upwards until it is in the superior vena cava or right atrium.
TPN stands for Total parenteral nutrition
TPN is typically administered via a central line. 100% of the patient’s nutrition is received via an intravenous line, eliminating the need for both eating and digesting. The “nutrition” is a liquid containing various amino acids, lipids, vitamins, salts, and glucose
The infusion methods are intravenous drip bolus piggyback
intravenous drip his is the continuous infusion of fluid (which can be accomplished with or without medication) through any of the IV access devices. The drug is administered slowly over time.
bolus The administration of medication in a single, large dose. The drug is administered all at once
piggyback Intermittent infusion. This typically involves a smaller IV bag added into the existing IV line to administer doses of medication
Parenteral – Other Routes Intramuscular or IM Subcutaneous Spinal
Intramuscular or IM injection utilizes a long needle with a large diameter. A large, long needle is needed in order to get through all the layers on top of your muscle because the needle reaches all the way inside a muscle to deliver its contents
Generally, large muscles of the body are the best for IM injections hips, gluteals, and large muscles of the legs
Subcutaneous (subcu, subq, or SQ.) A short, small diameter needle is used to inject medication through the skin, specifically the layer of fat directly under the skin.
Spinal a needle injected directly into the spinal canal.
the spinal can be injected in different areas spinal fluid epidural space surrounding the spine occurring in the space under the arachnoid membrane of the brain or spinal cord
A spinal block is delivered directly into the spinal fluid and is a one-time injection
An epidural is delivered into the epidural space surrounding the spine and is designed to deliver continuous pain relief. Epidurals are often used during childbirth.
An intrathecal instillation is introduced into or occurring in the space under the arachnoid membrane of the brain or spinal cord.
the same general series of processes occurs once the drug enters the body absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination.
Absorption is the process by which the active ingredients of a drug preparation are dissolved and released into the bloodstream
half life the time the total amount of drug diminishes by one half
loading dose a large dose given rapidly at the beginning of treatment to reach therapeutic level quickly
distribution transportation of a drug to other body tissue
metabolism how well the body breaks down the drug
elimination how the drug is eliminated from the body
potency drug's strength
efficacy degree to which a drug can produce a certain effect
Drug Categories Analgesics Anesthesia Anticoagulants and Antiplatelet Drugs Anticonvulsants and Antiosteoporosis Cardiovascular Drugs Gastrointestinal Drugs Endocrine Drugs Antibiotics, Antivirals, and Immune Drugs Psychological Drugs Respiratory Drugs
ASHP American Society of Health-System Pharmacists
ASHP has developed the “AHFS Pharmacologic-Therapeutic Classification,” which is used by the International Classification of Diseases, , by Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) for both Medicare and Medicaid.
ICD International Classification of Diseases
Drug terms in the AHFS database are classified according to the categories established in the American Hospital Formulary Service published by the American Society of Health System Pharmacists.
Health system facilities are required to maintain a formulary and retain a certain number of medications available for the patients.
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) maintains the drug schedules for controlled substance in the United States
Controlled substance are placed in classes or schedules based on their potential harm, addictive potential or medicinal value.
Class 1 or Schedule 1 contains the most dangerous drugs such as heroin or LSD
Class 5 or schedule 5 includes medication such as codeine preparations (Robitussin A-C) or Lomotil (antidiarrheal).
categories of pain management drugs (Analgesics) Non-narcotic analgesics NSAIDs Narcotic Analgesics
Non-Narcotic Analgesics include aspirin, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen.
aspirin Originally called acetylsalicylic acid. ASA.
Brand names of aspirin include: Bayer, Bufferin, Ecotrin, Excedrin
acetaminophen Although good at killing pain and lowering fever, acetaminophen is not particularly effective at reducing swelling. Acetaminophen is the only analgesic that is recommended for use by pregnant women.
Brand names of acetaminophen include: Tylenol, Anacin-3
ibuprofen a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory. an effective pain reliever and fever reducer, unlike acetaminophen it is also useful for reducing redness and swelling.
ibuprofen classified as either an analgesic or an NSAID, commonly used both to relieve pain and reduce swelling.
Brand names of ibuprofen include: Advil, Motrin, Nuprin, PediaCare
naproxen is also a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory used to alleviate pain, fever, and swelling
naproxen is marketed OTC under the brand names Aleve, Naprosyn, Anaprox
NSAID is an acronym for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
indomethacin(generic) trade name is Indocin
piroxicam(generic) trade name is Feldene
tolmetin(generic) trade name is Tolectin
nabumetone(generic) trade name is Relafen
diclofenac sodium(generic) trade name is Voltaren
Narcotics or opioids are derived from the opium poppy, and work on the brain to relieve pain. Narcotics tend to cause drowsiness and a feeling of euphoria. Narcotics tend to be highly addictive
Narcotic medications are dispensed as tablets or intravenously, as liquid solutions.
brand name of Percocet oxycodone and acetaminophen
brand name of Tylox oxycodone and acetaminophen
brand name of OxyContin oxycodone
brand name of Percodan aspirin and oxycodone
brand name of Vicodin hydrocodone and acetaminophen
brand name of Lorcet hydrocodone and acetaminophen
brand name of Darvon propoxyphene
brand name of Ultram tramadol
brand name of Demerol meperidine
brand name of MS-Contin morphine
brand name of Duragesic fentanyl
brand name of Darvocet propoxyphene and acetaminophen
anesthesia refers to a loss of pain and sensation through the use of drugs
Anesthetics are the drugs that are used to reduce or eliminate sensation.
There are three main types of anesthesia Local anesthesia Regional anesthesia General anesthesia
Local anesthesia numbs only one specific area of the body, usually accomplished using a needle injection, ointment, or spray.
Regional anesthesia is used to numb a larger area, although not the entire body, and is accomplished by injecting the anesthetic near a cluster of nerves
some regional anesthesia include epidural, an interscalene block for spinal surgery,a femoral nerve block for leg surgery. Many of the same drugs are used to accomplish both local and regional anesthesia.
procaine has trade name and it uses Novocain; Local and Regional anesthesia
lidocaine has trade name and it uses Xylocaine Local and Regional anesthesia
bupivacaine has trade name and it uses Marcaine or Sensorcaine Local and Regional anesthesia
General anesthesia is the loss of sensation throughout the body, including the ability to breathe, and requires intubation for assistance in respiration.
General anesthesia can be administered via IV or inhalation, or some combination of the two
General anesthesia has three basic components an analgesic for relief of pain; a paralytic for loss of sensation, muscle tone, and reflex movement; an amnesic to prevent the formation of any memory of the event.
General anesthesia is used primarily during surgery
General anesthesia inhalational: name three nitrous oxide halothane desflurane
methohexital has trade name and it uses Brevital General Intravenous Anesthesics
midazolam has trade name and it uses Versed General Intravenous Anesthesics
propofol has trade name and it uses Diprivan General Intravenous Anesthesics
Anticoagulants those that prevent the formation of clots. these are also sometimes called blood thinners
thrombolytics break up, dissolve, and cause clots to disperse. can also prevent clots. usually only administered through IV in a hospital setting.
Thrombolytics are usually referred to as “clot busters”
two of the most common injectable anticoagulants are heparin and Lovenox.
The most commonly prescribed oral anticoagulant is warfarin, which is marketed under the brand name Coumadin.
Antiplatelet drugs interfere with the chemical reactions that cause platelets to be sticky
The most common Antiplatelet drugs aspirin and Plavix. commonly used in cardiovascular patients to prevent clots, or in aspirin’s case, to reduce the harm caused due to a heart attack or myocardial infarction
Anticonvulsant drugs prevent or reduce the frequency of convulsions
carbamazepine is used for and its trade name is anticonvulsant drug Tegretol
felbamate is used for and its trade name is anticonvulsant drug Felbatol
gabapentin is used for and its trade name is anticonvulsant drug Neurontin
phenobarbital is used for and its trade name is anticonvulsant drug Luminal
phenytoin sodium is used for and its trade name is anticonvulsant drug Dilantin
valproic acid is used for and its trade name is anticonvulsant drug Depakote
Antiosteoporosis deal with bone loss and bone formation
There are two categories of antiosteoporosis drugs bisphosphonates SERMS
bisphosphonates which prevent bone loss
SERMS (selective estrogen modulators) the hormone like drugs which increase bone formation
Tamoxifen an antiestrogen, is often used to treat certain breast cancers, but also acts against osteoporosis
alendronate what type of drug and give brand name Antiosteoporosis bisphosphonates Fosamax
ibandronate sodium what type of drug and give brand name Antiosteoporosis bisphosphonates Boniva
zoledronic acid what type of drug and give brand name Antiosteoporosis bisphosphonates Zometa
raloxifene what type of drug and give brand name Antiosteoporosis SERMS Evista
tamoxifen what type of drug and give brand name Antiosteoporosis SERMS Nolvadex
Cardiovascular drugs are used to improve the function of heart and blood vessels, specifically treating angina, hypertension, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and arrhythmias
five catergories of cardiovascular drugs are digitalis preparations antihypertensives antiarrhythmics antihyperlipidemics vasodilators
digitalis preparations increases the force of the heart’s contractions, which can be beneficial in heart failure and for irregular heartbeats
digitalis preparations drug names commonly used are digoxin and digitoxin trade name is Lanoxin
Antihypertensives Drugs that lower blood pressure
five subcategories of the Antihypertensives are angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) beta blockers calcium channel blockers diuretics
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors class of antihypertensive drugs . lower bp by dilating blood vessels to improve the heart performance,reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke They work by stopping a hormone called angiotensin from ever forming. This hormone normally causes blood vessels to narrow.
enalapril give type of drug, and trade name Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors antihypertensive drugs Vasotec
fosinopril give type of drug, and trade name Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors antihypertensive drugs Monopril
lisinopril give type of drug, and trade name Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors antihypertensive drugs Zestril
quinapril give type of drug, and trade name Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors antihypertensive drugs Accupril
ramipril give type of drug, and trade name Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors antihypertensive drugs Altace
benazepril give type of drug, and trade name Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors antihypertensive drugs Lotensin
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs) class of antihypertensive drugs also known as angiotensin II antagonists, AT-2. work by preventing angiotensin from reacting on receptors in blood vessels used by patients who cannot tolerate ACE inhibitors
candesartan cilexetil give type of drug, and trade name Atacand,ARBs
irbesartan/HCTZ give type of drug, and trade name Avalide,ARBs
irbesartan give type of drug, and trade name Avapro, ARBs
olmesartan medoxomil/HCTZ give type of drug, and trade name Benicar HCT, ARBs
losartan give type of drug, and trade name Cozaar, ARBs
valsartan give type of drug, and trade name Diovan, ARBs
losartan/HCTZ give type of drug, and trade name Hyzaar, ARBs
clonidine give type of drug, and trade name Catapres, ARBs
methyldopa give type of drug, and trade name Aldoril, ARBs
Diuretics also known as water pills
Diuretics work on the kidneys causing an increase in the amount of solutes (sodium, chloride, and potassium) and water excreted through the urine
diuresis water excreted through the urine
Most diuretics inhibit the reabsorption of sodium from the tubules, which then increases solute and water output.
Diuretics are prescribed to reduce extracellular fluid volume. Too much sodium can cause extra fluid to build up in tissue and blood vessels, causing different types of disorders
Too much sodium can cause extra fluid to build up in tissue and blood vessels, causing different types of disorders: hypertension, heart failure, diabetes, edema, and some types of liver and kidney disease
most commonly prescribed diuretics are the thiazide, loop, and potassium-sparing.
Thiazide diuretics inhibit active exchange of sodium, chloride, and potassium in the cortical diluting segment of the ascending loop of Henle. This diuretic can lead to low potassium levels
hypokalemia low potassium levels
hydrochlorothiazide is what type of diuretic and trade name Thiazide diuretics, Microzide
chlorothiazide is what type of diuretic and trade name Thiazide diuretics, Diuril
chlorthalidone is what type of diuretic and trade name Thiazide diuretics, Hygroton
indapamide is what type of diuretic and trade name Thiazide diuretics, Lozol
metolazone is what type of diuretic and trade name Thiazide diuretics, Zaroxolyn
Loop diuretics inhibit exchange of sodium, chloride, and potassium in the thick segment of the ascending loop of Henle. This diuretic can lead to low potassium levels—termed hypokalemia
furosemide is what type of diuretic and trade name Loop diuretics, Lasix
bumetanide is what type of diuretic and trade name Loop diuretics, Bumex
torsemide is what type of diuretic and trade name Loop diuretics, Demadex
ethacrynic acid is what type of diuretic and trade name Loop diuretics, Edecrin
Potassium-sparing diuretics inhibit reabsorption of sodium in the distal convoluted and collecting tubule. These do not produce hypokalemia like thiazide and loop diuretics do, however they are very weak and are often used in conjunction with a thiazide or loop diuretic
spironolactone is what type of diuretic and trade name Potassium-sparing diuretics, Aldactone
triamterene is what type of diuretic and trade name Potassium-sparing diuretics, Dyrenium
amiloride is what type of diuretic and trade name Potassium-sparing diuretics, Midamor
Beta blockers also known as beta-adrenergic blocking agents
Beta blockers are prescribed for angina, hypertension, arrhythmias, and heart attack. Beta blockers target the beta receptor
Beta receptors are found on cells of the heart muscles, smooth muscles, airways, arteries, kidneys, and other tissues that are part of the sympathetic nervous system and lead to stress responses, especially when they are stimulated by epinephrine
Beta blockers interfere with the binding to the receptor of epinephrine and other stress hormones, and weaken the effects of stress hormones. Beta blockers help your heart beat slower.
Beta blockers are also effective in treating glaucoma, migraines, anxiety disorders, and certain kinds of tremors.
propranolol is what type of drug and the trade name Beta blockers, Inderal
atenolol is what type of drug and the trade name Beta blockers, Tenormin
metoprolol is what type of drug and the trade name Beta blockers, Lopressor
timolol is what type of drug and the trade name Beta blockers, Betimol
metoprolol succinate is what type of drug and the trade name Beta blockers, Toprol XL
nadolol is what type of drug and the trade name Beta blockers, Corgard
carvedilol is what type of drug and the trade name Beta blockers, Coreg
betaxolol is what type of drug and the trade name Beta blockers, Kerlone
which beta blocker is primarily used to treat glaucoma timolol
Calcium channel blockers, also known as calcium antagonists or calcium blockers
Calcium channel blockers work directly on the heart to dilate blood vessels and lower blood pressure and treat angina and arrhythmia.
Calcium channel blockers work on certain types of cells like those found in the muscles of the heart and the smooth muscles of the blood vessel walls, decreasing the force of contraction of the muscle
decreasing the force of contraction of the muscle. Calcium channel blockers do this by preventing (blocking) calcium from entering the cells.
Calcium channel blockers are used to treat hypertension, atrial fibrillation, angina, migraines, and Raynaud’s disease.
amlodipine is what type of drug and the trade name Calcium channel blockers, Norvasc
diltiazem is what type of drug and the trade name Calcium channel blockers, Cardizem, Cartia XT, Tiazac
nifedipine is what type of drug and the trade name Calcium channel blockers, Procardia, Adalat
verapamil is what type of drug and the trade name Calcium channel blockers, Calan, Isoptin, Verelan
nisoldipine is what type of drug and the trade name Calcium channel blockers, Sular
nimodipine is what type of drug and the trade name Calcium channel blockers, Nimotop
felodipine is what type of drug and the trade name Calcium channel blockers, Plendil
bepridil is what type of drug and the trade name Calcium channel blockers, Vascor
calcium channel blockers: they interact with grapefruit. If you eat a grapefruit or drink grapefruit juice while taking a calcium channel blocker your liver won’t be able to eliminate them from your body—causing the medication to continuously build up.
Antiarrhythmics that either prevent or treat arrhythmia work by changing the nerve impulses in the heart, stimulating the involuntary muscles to speed up the heartbeat.
Antiarrhythmics can block those same muscles to reduce the heart rate, or simply reduce the force of the heart muscle contraction. This also lowers blood pressure and can help with chest pain.
procainamide is what type of drug and the trade name Antiarrhythmics, Procan SR and Pronestyl
sotalol is what type of drug and the trade name Antiarrhythmics, Betapace
digoxin is what type of drug and the trade name Antiarrhythmics, Lanoxin
amiodarone is what type of drug and the trade name Antiarrhythmics, Cordarone
Lopressor (metoprolol) is also used to treat arrhythmia but falls into the beta blockers class of drugs.
Hyperlipidemia is the elevation of lipids in the blood. Primarily this refers to cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia), although it can also mean elevated triglycerides
Common types of cholesterol-lowering drugs include: statins, resins, nicotinic acid (niacin), and gemfibrozil clofibrate.
The most common antihyperlipidemics are the -statin drugs
atorvastatin is what type of drug and the trade name Antihyperlipidemics, Lipitor
lovastatin is what type of drug and the trade name Antihyperlipidemics, Mevacor
pravastatin is what type of drug and the trade name Antihyperlipidemics, Pravachol
rosuvastatin is what type of drug and the trade name Antihyperlipidemics, Crestor
simvastatin is what type of drug and the trade name Antihyperlipidemics, Zocor
Bile Acid Sequestrants is Another type of antihyperlipidemics, that target the bile acids that contain cholesterol when they enter the gut and prevent them from being reabsorbed back into the gut.
cholestyramine Bile Acid Sequestrants sold under the brand name Questran
colestipol Bile Acid Sequestrants sold as Colestid.
antihyperlipidemics work on lowering triglycerides niacin Fibrates
niacin a vitamin also known as vitamin B3.
Fibrates include gemfibrozil fenofibrate
gemfibrozil Lopid
fenofibrate TriCor
vasodilators sometimes used interchangeably with antihypertensives and sometimes classified separately. work directly on the smooth muscles of the blood vessel walls, causing them to widen (or dilate).
Hydralazine It opens up the blood vessels, making it easier for the heart to pump and lowering blood pressure. It is sold under the brand name Apresoline.
The generic drugs phentolamine and prazosin both lower blood pressure by relaxing the blood vessels.
minoxidil A common vasodilator initially developed to treat high blood pressure interesting side effect: hair growth. effective at reversing baldness
minoxidil reformulated it from a pill form to a topical form and have sold millions of them in the United States under the brand name Rogaine.
Isosorbide is considered a nitrate and works by relaxing blood vessels and allowing blood vessels to dilate.
isosorbide is prescribed primarily to treat angina or chest pain
common Isosorbide are Imdur and Isordil
Perhaps the most commonly used vasodilator is nitroglycerin more frequently used to treat chest pain.
nitroglycerin. This is sold under different brand names, but especially NitroQuick and Nitro-Bid
There are a variety of medications used to treat digestive problems Some digestive medications cure digestive problems and others relieve symptoms
Antacids Rolaids; neutralize hydrochloric symptoms
Anti-acidity Prilosec OTC, Maalox, Mylanta, Rolaids, and Tums; acid-reducing drugs known as H2 blockers, such as cimetidine (Tagamet), famotidine (Pepcid), nizatidine (Axid), and ranitidine (Zantac) will very likely provide relief.
Anti-diarrheals relieves diarrhea; Lomotil
Anti-nauseants Reglan relieves nausea
Anti-TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor) drugs Humira; treats autoimmune diseases such as Crohn Disease
Anti-ulcer and Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)– stopping production of acid; Tagamet, Nexium, Pepcid, Prevacid, Prilosec
Cathartics Peri-Colace; relieve constipation
Antacids relieve indigestion and heartburn and sometimes heal ulcers. They work by neutralizing the acid in the stomach. A variety of medications are available that utilize three main elements.
three type of antacids Magnesium hydroxide Calcium carbonate Aluminum hydroxide
Magnesium hydroxide Its use can cause diarrhea, so it is also effective at relieving constipation. In this capacity it is referred to as a laxative.
Magnesium hydroxide most common one is known as milk of magnesia. You will often see it capitalized because many brand names use it in their name: Phillips’ Milk of Magnesia.
Calcium carbonate is a potent and fast-acting antacid. can cause constipation. also helps to strengthen bones (unless taken to excess). Brand names for calcium carbonate include Tums and Rolaids.
Aluminum hydroxide is an effective antacid. can cause constipation. It is common to mix it with magnesium hydroxide (which causes diarrhea) to counteract symptoms of constipation.
brand names of Aluminum hydroxide Brand names include Amphojel and ALternaGEL.
combination of magnesium hydroxide and Aluminum hydroxide is sold under the brand names Maalox and Mylanta.
Anti-Acidity broken into two types H2 blockers Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs):
H2 blockers Proteins called histamines encourage acid secretion in the stomach. H2 blockers reduce stomach acid by blocking histamines.
famotidine generic anti-acidity H2 blockers trade name is Pepcid AC
ranitidine generic anti-acidity H2 blockers trade name is Zantac
nizatidine generic anti-acidity H2 blockers trade name is Axid
cimetidine generic anti-acidity H2 blockers trade name is Tagamet
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs): These limit stomach acid by shutting down the acid pumps, specifically by blocking an enzyme in the cells themselves. Prescribed and used in treatment of several different kinds of gastric problems, they are especially effective against ulcers.
lansoprazole generic Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs): trade name is Prevacid
omeprazole generic Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs): trade name is Prilosec
esomeprazole generic Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs): trade name is Nexium
rabeprazole generic Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs): trade name is Aciphex
pantoprazole generic Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs): trade name is Protonix
There is another drug effective against ulcers that is neither an H2 blocker nor a proton pump inhibitor. Called sucralfate (Carafate), it works by creating a chemical barrier around an ulcer, protecting it, much the way that a Band-Aid protects a wound.
Antiemetics are medications that reduce the urge to vomit, also referred to as antinausea medications. All of these drugs work on the vomiting center in the brain.
The gold standard for treatment of nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy treatment are the –setron drugs.
ondansetron generic antiemetics trade name is Zofran
palonosetron generic antiemetics trade name is Aloxi
alosetron generic antiemetics trade name is Lotronex
dolasetron generic antiemetics trade name is Anzemet
granisetron generic antiemetics trade name is Kytril, Sancuso
Other drugs that work on the brain to relieve nausea and vomiting are the generic drugs metoclopramide (sold commonly under the brand name Reglan) and domperidone.
A few antihistamines are particularly good at controlling symptoms of nausea and vomiting. The over-the counter brand name drug Dramamine
other antiemetics are generic drug promethazine sold under the brand name Phenerganbrand name medications Compazine and Tigan.
Pepto-Bismol is considered antiemetic. providing a soothing, protective coat to the lining of the stomach.
there are a variety of drug types and conditions that fall under the endocrine drug umbrella Diabetic Medications Insulin Thyroid Hormones Sex Hormones Infertility and Hormones
Created by: gchmelewski