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Pharm LP 7,8,9

for test 3

Is PUD & GERD affect the upper GI system? Yes
PUD may occur in the... Esophagus, stomach, or upper part of the duodenum
When does GERD occur? When the stomach contents leak into te esophagus
When a peptic ulcer occurs in the stomach it is called? A gastric ulcer
When an ulcer is formed in the duodenum it is called a .... Duodenal ulcer
80-90% of gastric ulcers are caused by an infection with... Helicobacter pylori (H-Pylori)
State the s/s of an ulcer that is getting worse Blood in stools, black tarry stools, continuing nausea or repeated vomiting, feeling cold or clammy, feeling weak or dizzy, losing wt, pain that doesn't go away with meds, pain that radiates into the back, vomiting blood or food eaten hours or days ago
Gasatroespohageal reflux disease is a condition in which the liquid contents of the.... Stomach back up into the esopagus
State four risk factors for GERD development Over wt, pregnant, certain medical conditions, certain medications (NSAIDS), alcohol, eating foods with high acid content, fatty & spicy foods, lying down too soon after meals, smoking
State the most common s/s of GERD Dyspepsia (heartburn)
Chronic GERD can cause changes in the cells of the esophagus, leading to precancerous cells and cancer. This condition is called Barrett's Esophagus
State the four substances that increase the risk for ulcer development Alcohol, NSAID's, Aspiring-containing products, foods
Waht is the action of H2 Blockers Decrease stimulation of H2 receptors in the gastric cells that secrete hydrochloric acid
State the most common side effect of H2 Blockers Confusion
If a PT, is recommended to take an H2 Blocker once per day, when should the Pt be advised to take the medication & why Hour of sleep (HS) to prolong its effects, when there is no food in the stomach & reflux may be worse.
Does examples of H2 Blockers include Ranitidine (Zantac), Cimetidine (Tagamet) Yes
Rantitidine (Zantac) can cause what color change in the mouth & elimination? Black tongue & dark stools
How do PPI's (Proton pump inhibitors) work? Completely block the production/secretion of stomach acid
Are PPI's (Proton Pump Inhibitors) the most powerful medications used for treatment of PUD/GERD? Yes, the are also used in combiination with antibiotics to treat H-Pylori
Are common examples of OTC PPI's include espmeprazole (Nexium) & Iansoprazole (Prevacid) Yes, other med examples include Prilosec, Aciphex, & Protonix
How do antacids work? They neutralize the stomach acid
Common s/e of antacids containing aluminum is... Constipation
Common s/e of antacids containing calcium include... Constipation
Common s/e of antacids containing magnesium include.. diarrhea
Antacids should be administered... One hr after or 2 hr before any other medications
Pt. with heart failure should not take sodium containing antacids like Alka-Seltzer... Why? They increase the NA & water retension, increasing the workload of the heart & can make the heart failure worse.
Are Maalox & Mild of Magnesia examples of antacids? Yes
How do cytoprotective medications work?
What is the most common side effect of Sucralfate (Carafate) Constipation
Bismuth subsalicylate (PeptoBismol) should not be used in children due to what condition? Reye's syndrome (children should only use children's Pepto)
How do promotility drugs work? Increase the LES (lower esophageal sphintcher) tone & speed up the emptying of food from the stomach
Can metoclopramide (Reglan) cause Neuroleptic malignant syndrome Yes, this can be life threatening. Fever, resp distress, tachycardia, seizures, b/p changes, severe muscle stiffness, loss of bladder control, etc.
Does Ducralfate (Carafate) cause Tardive Dyskinesia No, Metoclopramide (Reglan) does
Antibiotics are used to treat what infection? Bacterial infection, H-Pylori
acute pain... has a sudden onset, an identifiable cause, and a limited duration; triggers physiologic changes; and improves with time even when it is not treated
addiction is the psychologic need or craving for the "high" feeling that results from using opioids when pain is not present
analgesics Drugs that provide pain relief by either changing the perception of pain or reducing its source
antihistamines Drugs used to treat allergies and allergic reactions
benzodiazepine receptor agonists are drugs that depress the CNS and induce sleep by binding with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors
benzodiazepines a class of psychotropic drugs with hypnotic and sedative effects, used mainly as tranquilizers to control symptoms of anxiety or stress and as sleeping aids for insomnia
chronicpain... has a long duration, may not have an identifiable cause, does not trigger physiologic changes, and persists or increases with time
controlled substance a drug containing ingredients known to be addictive that is regulated by the Federal Controlled Substances Act of 1970
dependence is Physical changes in autonomic nervous system function that can occur when opioids are used long term
insomnia is the inability to sleep or to remain asleep throughout the night
narcolepsy is a sleep problem with sudden, uncontrollable urges to sleep, causing the person to fall asleep at inappropriate times
nonopioid analgesics are.... drugs that reduce a person's perception of pain; it is not similar to opium and has little potential for psychologic or physical dependende
nociceptors are free sensory nerve endings that, when activated, trigger a message sent to the brain that allows the perception of pain
opioid analgesic are drugs containing any ingredient derived from the poppy plant (or a similar synthetic chemical) that changes a person's perception of pain and has a potential for psychologic or physical dependence (also called narcotics)
pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with acute
pain tolerance is a person's ability to endure or stand pain intensity
sedatives are a drug that promotes sleep by targeting signals in the brain to produce calm and ease agitation
sleep is... a natural and necessary periodic state of rest for the mind and body, in which consciousness is partly or completely lost, eyes close, metabolism slows, body movements decrease, and responsiveness to external stimuli declines
tolerance is.... the adjustment of the body to long-term opioid use that increases the rate that a drug is eliminated and reduces the main effects (pain relief) and side effects of the drug. More drug is needed to achieve the same degree of pain relief
withdrawal is... the autonomic nervous system symptoms occurring when long-term opioid therapy is stopped suddenly after physical dependence is present. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, sweating, delirium, and seizures
Schedule I drugs have.... a high potential for abuse with no acceptable medical use in the US. Lack of accepted safety for use of the drug or other substance under medical supervision
Schedule II drugs have.... high potential for abuse but are currently accepted for use in the US. Abuse may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence
Schedule II drugs have the potential for abuse but is less than drugs or substances in the previous classes. They are currently used in the US for treatment of medical conditions. Abuse may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence
Schedule IV drugs have a low potential for abuse relative to drugs in previous classes. They are used in the US for medical purposes. Abuse may lead to limited physical dependence or psychologic dependence relative to previous drug class. Valium is in this class
Schedule V drugs have low potential for abuse relative to the drugs in previous class. They are used for medicine in the US. Abuse may lead to limited physical dependence or psychologic dependence relative to previous drug class. Lomotil is in this class
absence seizure is a... generalized seizure usually lasting less than 20 seconds characterized by a blank stare and sometimes blinking, eye rolling, or chewing movements; also called petit mal seizure
atonic seizure is a seizure characterized by... sudden loss of muscle tone for a few seconds followed by confusion
aura is the strange sensation such as tingling, smell, or emotional changes that occur before a seizure
complex partial seizure is a seizure that.... involves only part of the brain and impairs consciousness; often preceded by a simple partial seizure, aura, or warning
epilepsy is... a disorder of the brain that causes recurrent, unprovoked seizures
generalized is a seizure that... involves the entire brain; caused by electrical discharges originating from both sides of the brain
myoclonic seizure is a... brief muscle jerk resulting from an abnormal discharge of brain electrical activity; usually involves muscles on both sides of the body, most often the shoulders or upper arms
partial seizure is... one that starts in one part of the brain. The abnormal electrical activity may remain confined to one area or spread to the entire brain; also called a focal or local seizure
postictal phase is.. "After the seizure" phase often characterized by confusion, headache, sore muscles, and fatigue
seizure is.. uncontrolled electrical activity in the brain that may produce a physical convulsion, minor physical signs, thought disturbances, or a combination of symptoms
seizure disorder is... a pathologic condition resulting in a sudden episode of uncontrolled electrical activity in the brain
status epilepticus is.... a prolonged seizure (usually defined as lasting longer than 20 min) or a series of repeated seizures; a continuous state of seizure activity that may occur in almost any seizure type
tonic-clonic seizure... lasts 2-5 minutes with stiffening or rigidity o fthe arm and leg muscles and immediate loss of consciousness; also called a grand mal seizure
For a generalized or complex partial seizure, remove anything that could cause injury to the patient and turn him to one side to prevent aspiration and let secretion drain
Do not attempt to put anything into the person's mouth during a seizure to prevent them biting their tongue. If they break off pieces of whatever you put in there, or break off their teeth, they may aspirate those
Most anti-seizure drug treatments consists of... more than one drug
Anti-seizure drug treatments start with only 1 drug at a time to determine its effects
Because multiple drugs are given for seizure control, the primary drug given for control is called the 1st-line drug. The next drug is called the 2nd-line drug.
Most of these anti-seizure drugs should or should not be taken with food Should
Carbamazepine (Tegretol) should not be taken with... grapefruit juice because it increases the action of the drug
neutropenia Term for decrease in the number of WBC's
pancytopenia Term for the reduction of all types of blood cells
aplastic anemia is deficient RBC production by the bone marrow
laryngospasm Term for closing of the larnyx; adverse effect of phenobarbitol
angiodema Term for the swelling around the eyes and lips and sometimes of the hands; adverse effect of phenobarbitol
What is the normal Litium serum levels? 0.5 - 1.5 meq/L
Carbidopa - Levodopa (Sinemet) Medication for Parkins Disease (PD) Blocks the conversion of levodopa to dopamine in the perigheral NS. Onset 15 min. Peak 1-3 hrs. Duration 5-12 hrs. Admin with low protein foods. Avoid excessive amounts of Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine).
S/E of Carbidopa - Levodopa (Sinemet) NUMEROUS!! Nausea, vomiting (dopamine stimulates the CTZ in the medulla) Cardio-orthostatic hypotension, increased HR, cardiac dysrhymias with dose changes, mental changes, nightmares, & suicide tendencies.
Is pain assessmetn considered the 5th vital sign? Yes
name the division of the ANS that pain will trigger & identify three s/s that can result in the aactivation. Sympathetic, Increased HR, Respitory, & Blood Pressure
Identify 3 barriers related to good pain management that affect health care workers.. Fear of addiction, belief that pain is an expected part of aging, fear of overdosing a PT.
What is the action of Analgesics? Pain Control
Why is the assessment of the PT pain intensity & when the last dose of pain medication was administered necessary prior to any Analgesic medication? Pain intensity may warrent a different medication route, PT intervention; Last medication dose determines if administration time is appropriate..(too long of interval, too early)
Opiods AKA? Narcotics
Are Opiods controlled substances? Yes
Identify three common s/e of Opioid administration Constipation, Nausea, Vomiting
State two adverse effects of the use of Opioids Respiration depression, Dependance, & Addiction
State the Opioid antidote Narcan
Are Opioids used to manage severe pain? Yes
NSAID's are used to ... Reduce inflammation
State what each of the letters in NSAID stand for Non Steriodal Anti - Inflammatory Drug
Headaches & kidney problems are associated with all NSAID's except... Aspirin (ASA)
Can NSAID's cause bleeding? Yes
What are 2 examples of Ibuprofen? Motrin / Advil
Celecoxib (Celebrex) is a Cox-2 selective / inhibitor; What is the major advantage of a Cox-2 inhibitor? Helps decrease inflammation, yet keep the lining of the stomach intact.
NSAID's can cause retention of NA & H2O, causing what vital sign change? Increased blood pressure!!
Acetaminophen AKA? Tylenol
State the max adult dose of Acetaminophen 4g / day
Identify three acute sleep problems Stress, Use of stimulants, Use of alcohol, Minor illness
How do medications for insomnis work? Cause general CNS depression, drowsiness, & mild sedation
Methylphenidate (Ritalin) can cause what two growth alterations in children? Height & Weight
Created by: slyarrington



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