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S&C Studying

Skeletal System

Name the bone groups of the Axial Skeleton & number of bones Skull/cranium Vertebral column (vertebrae C1 - coccyx) Ribs & the sternum (80 bones)
Name the bone groups of the Appendicular Skeleton & number of bones The shoulder girdle The pelvic girdle The upper limb The lower limb (126 bones)
Name the bones in the Shoulder girdle Scapula, clavicle, humerus
Name the bones in the Pelvic girdle Ilium, ishium, pelvis, femur
Name the bones in the Upper limb Humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals and phalanges
Name the bones in the Lower limb Femur, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
Name four Skeletal system functions Support & protection Movement (levers) Hematopoiesis Storage: Minerals & triglycerides
Name four components of Support and Protection Structural framework Supports soft tissues Provides attachment points for tendons of most skeletal muscles Protects critical organs
Explain how movement happens Muscles contract ->Tendons pull on bones->Movement
Where is Red bone marrow found Red bone marrow (connective tissue) found in: Skull, pelvis, ribs, sternum end of the femur and humerus
What is stored in bones & what is its function Calcium and phosphate (cement of bones) -Give bones their rigidity -Can be withdrawn from bone to serve other critical chemical functions Triglycerides: yellow bone marrow (energy reserve)
What are the two types of bone Spongy Compact
What two cells maintain & create bone, give there function Osteoblasts: lay down calcium containing crystals along the collagen fibres (bone forming) Osteoclasts: break down old bone (bone breakers)
Name & discribe 4 of 7 parts of bone structure Diaphysis:shaft/body Epiphyses:distal/proximal ends Metaphyses:where diaphysis joins epiphysis Articular cartilage:thin layer of hyaline cartilage
Name & discribe the remaining 3 parts of bone structure Periosteum: tough sheath of irregular connective tissue surrounding the bone surface Medullary cavity:space within diaphysis containing yellow bone marrow Endosteum:thin membrane lining the medullary cavity
How much of the skeleton is compact bone 80%
Give functions of spongy bone Filled with red bone marrow Precisely orientated along lines of stress to resist stresses and transfer force without breaking Found only in the marrow or spongy cavities and at the ends (epiphysis) of long bones
Give the % of spongy bone found in the vertebral column About 70% spongy material
Name the 5 types of bone Long Bone Short Bone Flat Bone Irregular Bone Sesamoid Bone
Give at least 4 examples of long bones & why it is called long Humerus, ulna, radius, femur, tibia, fibula Greater length than width
Give two examples of short bones, where they are found & why it is called short Carpals of the wrist and tarsals of the feet Cube shaped and are nearly equal in length and width
Give at least 3 examples of flat bones & why it is called flat Cranial, Sternum, Scapula, Ilium Thin, flattened, tend to be curved
Give at least 3 examples of Irregular bones & why it is called irregular Vertebrae, Ischium and pubis of the pelvis, Certain facial bones Irregular bones: unique shapes
Give an example of a Sesamoid bone, its function & why its called Sesamoid Knee Cap Formed within tendons Strengthen tendon Improve traction mechanics of muscles Shaped like a sesame seed
Name two major types of bone surface markings & function Depressions and openings: Form joints and allow for the passage of soft tissue e.g.blood vessels & nerves Processes: outgrowths that help form joints or serve as attachment points for connective tissue e.g ligaments or tendons
what is the process of ossification Calcium, phosphorous and other hard minerals are embedded in the cartilage and it eventually becomes bone
where is calcium stored 99% of the body’s calcium is stored in bones
where does Longitudinal growth take place epiphyseal plates at the ends of the bone (growth plates)
Whats is the process of bone remodiling Bone resorption: removal of minerals & collagen fibres Bone deposition: addition of minerals & collagen fibres
What 4 factors affect Growth & remodiling Hormones Vitamins & minerals Exercise/activity Ageing
How do Minerals & Vitamins affect bone growth structures need full range of minerals and vitamins to prosper Blood vessels bring nutrients to the bone and remove waste products
How do Hormones affect bone growth IGFs stimulate osteoblasts, promote cell division at the epiphyseal plate estrogen/testosterone increase osteoblast activity and synthesis of bone matrix - growth spurt sex hormones slow resorption of old bone and promote the deposition of new bone
How does exercise affect bone growth Mechanical strain can cause bone remodelling by osteoblasts migrate to the bone surface laying Collagen fibres to be mineralized as calcium phosphate crystals. Resulting in increasing the diameter and strength of the bone
How does inactivity affect bone growth Connective tissue / Loss of bone mass becomes weak Return to training needs to be gradual
What components of mechanical load stimulate bone growth Magnitude of the load (intensity) Rate of loading (speed) Direction of the forces Volume of the loading (reps)
How does ageing affect bone growth Insufficient exercise reduction in Calcium and Vitamin D
Name the 6 bones of the cranium & location Frontal – forehead Parietal bones - top and sides Occipital - back of the head Temporal - sides and lower part of the cranium Sphenoid - superior cheek bone Ethmoid - below frontal and in front of sphenoid, helps to form the orbital and nasal cavity
Name the 6 bones of the face & location Maxillae-upper jaw Zygomatic -cheek bone Palatine -bottom of nose and eye cavities Mandible -lower jaw Turbinator -internal wall of nasal Vomer -separates nasal cavities Nasal -form bridge of nose Lacrimal -part of the eye socket
Name the 5 sections of the Vertebral Column & how many within each 7 cervical vertebrae (Atlas C1, Axis C2) 12 thoracic vertebrae Articulates with ribs 5 lumbar vertebrae 5 sacral vertebrae Articulates with pelvic girdle 3 – 5 coccygeal vertebrae
What is the function of inter-vertebral discs Absorb pressure, distribute stress, and keep the vertebrae from grinding against each other
Name the 3 planes of movement with there 3 axis Sagittal plane (anterior, posterior) / Frontal axis Frontal plane (laterally) / Sagittal axis Transverse plane (rotational) / Longitudinal