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Ch. 12 Vocabulary

TermDefinition
mid-ocean ridge underwater mountain range, formed by plate tectonics.
rift valley a large elongated depression with steep walls formed by downward displacement of a block of the Earth's surface between nearly parallel faults or fault systems.
divergent boundary linear feature that exists between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other.
convergent boundary actively deforming region where 2 or more tectonic plates of the lithosphere move toward one another and collide.
subduction the sideways and downward movement of the edge of a plate of the Earth's crust into the mantle beneath another plate.
transform boundary plate tectonic boundary that exists as a large fault, or crack, along which lithospheric plates move in a horizontal direction.
fault a crack along which movement has taken place.
elastic rebound the sudden energy release that goes with fault movement.
focus point of origin
epicenter the point on Earth's surface directly above the focus
discontinuity a boundary that marks a density change between layers
shadow zone "dead zone" between 105 and 140 degrees from an Earth's epicenter, where nothing is recorded on a seismogram
asthenosphere a weaker, plastic like layer upon which Earth's lithospheric plates move.
viscosity a measure of the resistance of a fluid to flow
cinder cone volcano small, violently erupting volcano formed by accumulation of large pyroclastic materials around a vent
shield volcano broad, flat volcano formed by layers of free-flowing, high temperature, basaltic lava.
composite volcano large volcano formed by alternating lava flows and violently erupting pyroclastic materials.
Created by: misssjay