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Medication administr

Medication and their administration Ch 13-14

Radiographer’s responsibilities include: Drawing up and administering contrast agents for IV use; Mixing up and administering contrast for oral administration; Venipuncture; Checking for allergies; Assisting the physician/nurse Monitoring the patient during and after medication administration
Medication a substance prescribed for treatment and produces therapeutically useful effects
Drug a more general term and denotes substances used in the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of disease, or as a component of a medication
Medications have: 1.Generic or chemical names: Identifies the chemical family (Acetaminophen) 2.Proprietary or trade names: Given by manufacturer (Tylenol)
An information sheet (package insert) included with all drugs/medications that gives trade name, generic name, chemical composition, chemical strength, usual dose, indications, contraindications, and reported side effects
PDR (Physician’s Desk Reference) is published annually and lists all drugs and medications
Pharmacokinetics The study of how drugs enter the body, are absorbed, reach their site of action, are metabolized, and exit the body.
Factors affecting the drug age, physical condition, sex, weight, or immune status
Absorption How the drug enters the systemic circulation and produces the desired effect. Acts on the cells receptor sites (may bind to them or block them)
Distribution Means by which the drug goes from site of administration to site of desired action. Usually through the bloodstream. Organs with high blood flow have the drug delivered quicker
Metabolism How the body transforms the drug into an inactive form that can be excreted from the body Most metabolism occurs in the liver
Excretion Elimination of the drug from the body after it has been metabolized. Kidneys, intestines, lungs, or exocrine glands. Kidneys are the chief organs of excretion
Serum creatinine level Test to evaluate kidney function
Pharmacodynamics The study of the effects of drugs on the normal physiological functions of the body
an agonist (sedatives) drug Drugs bind to receptor sites on cells and cause some type of therapeutic action
an antagonist (drugs to counteract sedatives) A drug that attaches itself to a receptor and prevents an agonist from acting
Medication Effects 1.Therapeutic effects. 2.Side effects. 3.Toxic effects when the drug accumulates in the body at high levels. Antidote treats toxic effects
Adverse side effects are not a normal consequence of most prescribed medications Mild nausea, flushing, hives, respiratory distress, change in blood pressure, or worse.
synergistic effect Drugs taken together may have a synergistic (additive) effect
Anti-allergic medications: 1.Diphenhydramine:(Benadryl) Oral, IM, or IV 2.Epinephrine:(Adrenalin) SC, IM, or IV 3.Methylprednisolone (Solu-Medrol)
Antimicrobials 1.Betadine: Iodine compound 2.Antibiotics
Analgesics (Drugs that relieve pain) 1.Opiods (drugs whose action is similar to morphine) 2.Morphine 3.Codeine 4.Meperidine (Demerol)
Controlled substances Drugs with a high potential for abuse and therefore must be locked up and counted daily:Morphine, Meperidine (Demerol), Fentanyl (Sublimaze)
Sedatives and tranquilizers 1.Diazepam (Valium) *irritates small vessels and crystallizes when mixed 2.Midazolam (Versed)
Antagonists: 1.Flumazenil (Romazicon) works against benzodiazepines 2.Naloxone (Narcan) works against opiates such as morphine
Local anesthetics: Lidocaine (Xylocaine) With or without epinephrine
Paralytic (local anesthetics) Succinylcholine chloride: Anectine is used paralyze smooth muscles to help in intubation
Hypoglycemic Agents: 1.Insulin for Type I diabetes 2.Type II (non insulin dependent) -Metformin (Glucophage) *IV contrast has potential adverse affects for patients taking Metformin products
Before administering a medication *Check the order *Verify the medication and check expiration date *Check for patient allergies *Wash your hands prior to medication preparation
5 rights of medication administration -Right dose -Right medication -Right patient -Right time -Right route *Read the label 3 times
Routes *Enteral (oral, NG, and rectal) *Inhalation (vaporized) *Topical (onto the skin surface) *Sublingual or buccal (mucosal membrane) *Parenteral (IV, IM, Subq, etc)
Topical routes Nifedipine (Procardia) Transdermal nitroglycerine Transdermal nicotine patch Scoplamine for vertigo
Rectal: suppositories when patient is nauseated or unable to swallow
Sublingual Nitroglycerin (NTG) For angina pectoris
Parenteral routes Injected directly into the body and bypass the GI tract Requires hypodermic needles and syringes
the gauge The diameter of a needle *18-22 is normally used for adults in radiology
Intrathecal is injected into the spinal canal (not the cord)
IV Fluids Normal saline (0.9% sodium chloride) ½ normal saline (0.45% sodium chloride) D5W (5% dextrose in water solution) Lactated Ringers solution
Extravasation (infiltration) Leaking of IV fluid or medications into the tissue surrounding the vein
in case of infiltration Stop injection immediately Call the nurse Try to remove as much fluid as possible Remove the needle Apply cold Incident report
discontinuing an IV Wear gloves Get a gauze pad Remove in a long, smooth pulling motion Apply pressure for one minute or until bleeding stops
ACETAMINOPHEN (Tylenol) IBUPROFEN (Advil) ASPIRIN Analgesics effect: relieve pain side effect: anticoagulant
NITROGLYCERIN HYDRALAZINE (Apresoline) Vasodilators effect:relax the wall of blood vessels side effect:headache, hypotension, vomiting
EPINEPHRINE (Adrenalin) EPHEDRINE (Isuprel) Adrenergics (vasoconstrictors) effect: bronchodilation, cardiac stimulation, vasoconstriction......... side effect: dry mouth
LIDOCAINE (Xylocaine) local Anesthetics effect:promote loss of feeling or sensation side effect: nausea
HEPARIN (IV) WARFARIN (Coumadin,pill) Anticoagulants effect: inhibit the clotting of the blood side effect:bruising, spontaneous bleeding
TIGAN Antiemetics effect:relieve or prevent vomiting side effect: drowsiness, blurred visison
ASPIRIN ACETOMINOPHEN Antipyretics effect: reduce fever
ALBUTEROL Bronchodilators effect:dilate smooth muscle, treats asthma attack and allergic reactions side effect: insomnia, decreased appetite, vomiting..
BISACODYL (Dulcolax) CASTOR OIL MAGNESIUM CITRATE Cathartics effect: stimulates peristalsis, promotes defecation side effects: dehydration, cramps, weight loss
FUROSEMIDE (Lasix) CHLOROTHIAZIDE (Diuril) Diuretics effects: stimulates the flow of urine side effects: cramps, metallic taste, fatigue
IPECAC Emetics effect: stimulates vomiting
INSULIN METFORMIN (Glucoghage) Hypoglycemics effect: lower blood sugar level side effect: contraindicated w/iodine contrast media for 48h after injection
Created by: sunkissfl