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Nason Ch 8

Learning Vocab

Vocab WordDefinition
Learning a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
Associative Learning learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant learning)
Classical Conditioning a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. AKA Pavlovian or respondant conditioning
Behaviorism the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists agree with (1) but not (2)
Unconditioned Response in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occuring response to the unconditioned stimulus, such as salivation when food is in the mouth
Unconditioned Stimulus in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally triggers a response
Conditioned Response in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus
Conditioned Stimulus in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
Acquisition the inital stage in classical conditioning, the phase associating a neural stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus with an uncondtioned simulus so that the neural stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response
Extinction the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced
Spontaneous Recovery the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
Generalization the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned response to elicit similar responses
Discrimination in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned response
Operant Conditioning a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
Respondant Behavior behavior that occurs as an automatic response to a stimulus; Skinner's term for behavior learned through classical conditioning
Operant Behavior behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
Law of Effect Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
Operant Chamber a chamber known as "Skinner's Box", containing a bar or a key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attatched devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking
Shaping an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
Reinforcer in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
Positive Reinforcement increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food; any stimulus that, when presented after the response, strengthens it
Negative Reinforcement increasing behaviors by stoppping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock; any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens it
Primary Reinforcer an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisifies a biological need
Conditioned Reinforcer a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as secondary reinforcer
Continuous Reinforcement reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition, but much greater resistance to extiction than continuous reinforcement
Fixed-Ratio Schedule in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after so many responses
Variable-Ratio Schedule in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of response
Fixed-Interval Schedule in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
Punishment an event that decreases the behavior it follows
Cognitive Map a mental representation of the layout of one's environment
Latent Learning learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
Intrinsic Motivation a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
Extrinsic Motivation a desire to perfom a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
Observational Learning learning by observing others
Modeling the process of observing an imitating a specific behavior
Mirror Neurons frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's actions may enable imitation, language, learning, and empathy
Prosocial Behavior positive, constructive, helpful behavior; opposite of antisocial behavior
Created by: cookie_luv
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