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ClinicalPharmacology

Based on Clinical Pharmacology Made Incredibly Easy ch.1-3

QuestionAnswer
Define Pharmacokinetics Absorbed (taken into the body) Distributed (moved into various tissues) Metabolism (changed into a form that can be excreted) Excretion (removed from the body)
What is drug absorption? Covers a drug's progress from the time it's administered, through it's passage to the tissues, until it reaches systemic circulation. On a cellular level, it's done primarily through active transport or passive transport.
What is active transport? Requires cellular energy to move the drug from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. Used to absorb electrolytes, such as sodium and potassium, as well as some drugs such as Levodopa.
What is passive transport? Requires no cellular energy to move the drug from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. This occurs when small molecules diffuse across membranes and stops when drug concentration on both sides of the membrane are equal.
What is pinocytosis? A unique form of active transport that occurs when a cell engulfs a drug particle. Commonly employed to transport fat-soluble vitamins.(A,D,E,and K)
What factors can effect the rate of absorption? Route of administration Patient medical history First-pass effect Increased blood flow to absorption site Pain and stress High-fat meals Drug formulation Drug-drug and food-drug interactions
What is drug distribution? The process by which the drug is delivered from the systemic circulation to body tissues and fluids.
What factors can effect drug distribution? blood flow solubility protein binding
What is drug metabolism? The process by which the body changes a drug from its dosage form to a more water-soluble form.
What factors can effect drug metabolism? certain diseases genetics environment developmental changes
What is drug excretion? Elimination of drugs from the body
Define Pharmacodynamics The study of the drug mechanisms that produce biochemical or physiologic changes in the body.
Define Pharmacotherapeutics Is the use of drugs to treat disease.
Define drug interaction(s)? Occur between drugs or between drugs and foods that interfere with lab results or produce physical or chemical incompatibilities.
What are some potential drug interactions? additive effects potentiation (synergistic effect) antagonistic effects decreased or increased absorption, metabolism, and excretion
Define adverse drug reaction A harmful and undesirable response.
What are some causes of adverse drug reactions? secondary effects hypersusceptability overdose iatrogenic effects
Define Cholinergic agonists Promote the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, also called parasympathomimetic drugs.
What are the pharmacokinetics of cholinergic agonists? The action and metabolism of these drugs vary widely and depend on the affinity of the drug for muscarinic or nicotinic receptors.
What are the pharmacodynamics of cholinergic agaonists? Salivation bradycardia dilation of blood vessels constriction of bronchioles increased activity of the GI tract increased tone and contraction of the bladder muscles constriction of the pupils
What are the pharmacotherpeutics of cholinergic agonists? Weak bladder GI disorders reduce eye pressure salivary gland hypofunction
What are the adverse reactions to cholinergic agonists? nausea and vomiting cramps and diarrhea blurred vision decreased heart rate and low blood pressure shortness of breath urinary infrequency sweating
Define anticholinesterase drugs Block the action of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase at cholinergic receptor sites, preventing the breakdown of acetylcholine.
Define anticholinergic drugs Interrupt parasympathetic nerve impulses in the central and autonomic nervous systems, preventing acetylcholine from stimulating cholinergic receptors.
What is the pharmacological drug class for Bethanecol? cholinergic agonist drug This drug is used to treat urinary retention and heartburn,
What is the pharmacological drug class for Atropine? anticholinergic blocker Used before surgery to reduce oral, gastric, and respiratory secretions and prevent a drop in heart rate
What is Atropine used to treat? Used before surgery to reduce oral, gastric, and respiratory secretions and prevent a drop in heart rate
What is the pharmacological drug class for Neostigmine? anticholinesterase drug used to diagnose myasthenia gravis
Define adrenergic drugs Also called sympathomimetic drugs because they produce effects similar to those produced by the sympathetic nervous system.
Define catecholamine adrenergic drugs An adrenergic drug class that stimulates the nervous system, constrict peripheral blood vessels, increase heart rate, and dilate the bronchi, such as epinephrine and norepinephrine
Define adrenergic blocking drugs Also called sympatholytic drugs, are used to disrupt sympathetic nervous system function, by blocking impulse transmission at adrenergic neurons or adrenergic receptor sites.
What are alpha-adrenergic blockers? This drug class works by interupting the actions of the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine at alpha receptors.
What are the pharmacodynamics of alpha-adrenergic blockers? This drug class blocks the synthesis, storage, release, and reuptake of norepenphrine or they antagonize epinephrine, norepinephrine, or adrenergic drugs at alpha receptor sites.
What are the pharmacotherapeutics of alpha-adrenegic blockers? Used to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, and pheochromocytoma
Define beta-adrenergic blockers The most widely used adrenergic blockers, prevent stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system by inhibiting the action of catecholamines at beta-adrenergic receptors.
What are the pharmacodynamics of beta-adrenergic blockers? This drug causes increased peripheral vascular resistance, decreased blood pressure, decreased force of the heart beat,decreased oxygen to the heart, and slowed impulse between atria and ventricles
What are the pharmacotherapeutics of beta-adrenergic blockers? This pharmacotherapeutic drug class is used to treat angina, heart failure, hypertension, cardiomyopathy, and supraventricular arrhthmias.
Define skeletal muscle relaxants Used to relieve musculoskeletal pain or spasm and severe musculoskeletal spasticity.
What is the pharmacological drug class for Dantrolene? This drug is the most common direct -acting skeletal muscle relaxant.This drug helps with spasticity in patients with cerebral palsy, MS, spinal cord injury, and stroke.
What is Dantrolene used to treat? This drug helps with spasticity in patients with cerebral palsy, MS, spinal cord injury, and stroke.
What is the chemical name for Valium? Diazepam
What are Benzodiazepines? This drug class is a muscle skeletal relaxant but also has anticonvulsants.
What is the pharmacological drug class for Baclofen? This drug is a direct-acting skeletal muscle relaxant.This drugs primary clinical use is for paraplegic or quadparaplegic patients with spinal cord lesions, most commonly caused by MS or trauma.
What is the pharmacological drug class for Valium? This drug is a Benzodiazepine thats used to treat muscle spasms as well as spasticity caused by chronic disorders.
Define Non-Depolarizing drugs? Also called competitive or stabilizing drugs, are derived from curare alkaloids and synthetically similar compounds
What is the pharmacological drug class for Succinylcholine? This drug is a depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drug thats used to treat short term muscle relaxation.
What is the pharmacological drug class for Levodopa? This drug is a dopaminergic drug used to improve motor function of the brain.
Define COMT inhibitors These drugs are used as adjuncts to levodopa-carbidopa therapy in managing patients with Parkinson's disease.
Define anticonvulsant drugs These drugs inhibit neuromuscular transmissions and are prescribed for chronic epilepsy, acute isolated seizures, status elipticus.
What is the pharmacological drug class for Phenytoin? This drug is a very common hydantoin anticonvulsant drug class used to treat seizures.
Define Iminostilbenes These drugs are considered anticonvulsants that treat partial or genralized tonic-clonic seizures, mixed seizure types, and complex partial seizures.
What is the pharmacological drug class for Carbamazepine? This drug is an Iminostillbene anticonvulsant used to treat seizures.
What are Triptan drugs? these are 5-HT1-receptor agonist drugs used for treatment of moderate to severe migraines.
What is Ergotamine used for? This drug is an adrenergic blocking drug that's used to prevent or treat vascular headaches, such as migraine variant, and cluster headaches.
What is Parenteral? A route of administration by injection or infusion.
What is a subcutaneous injection? An injection given in the subcutaneous tissue
What is a pharmacological drug class? A group of drugs classified by their similar characteristics Ex:beta-adrenergic blocker
What is a pharmacotherapeutic drug class? A group of drugs classified by their therapeutic use Ex:antihypertensives
What are Prodrugs? A drug that is inactive when taken but becomes active when metabolized.
What drugs increase the effects of cholinergic blockers? Disopyramide Amantadine Buclizine, Cyclizine, Meclizine, and diphenhydramine Haloperidol,phenothiazines, and thioxanthenes Cyclobenzaprine Orphenadrine Tricyclic and Tetracyclic antidepressants
What is Empiric therapy? Treatment used on a patient without prior diagnosis, based off of practical experience rather than on pure scientific data.
What is osmosis? a process by which molecules of a solvent tend to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one, thus equalizing the concentrations on each side of the membrane.
Anticonvulsants are also known as? (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs)
 

 



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