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A&P2 Chptr 2

Levels of Organization of the Human Body

QuestionAnswer
All matter is composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons
Atomic number equals number of protons
Atomic mass number equals number of protons and number of neutrons
Protons have a _____ charge positive
Neutrons have a _____ charge neutral
Electrons have a _____ charge negative
Atoms bond to form molecules
Atoms share electrons to form a covalent bond
Atoms give up and receive electrons in an ionic bond
Water's 5 vital functions in the body 1. Allows for ions in solution 2. works as a lubricant 3. Aids in chemical and metabolic reactions 4. Helps with transportation of nutrients 5. Body temperature regulation
A solution is composed of a solute _____ in a solvent dissolved
Hypertonic solution is _____ concentrated more
Isotonic solution is _____ concentration same
Hypotonic solution is _____ concentrated less
The pH scale is used to measure _____ and _____ acidity and alkalinity
4 Types of Organic Molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acid
Carbohydrates are classified by _____ _____ molecular size
3 Molecular sizes 1. Monosaccharide 2. Disaccharides 3. Polysaccharides
Amino acids are the _____ _____ of proteins building units
Proteins are made up of _____ _____ Amino acids
Nucleotides are arranged in three-letter sequences called _____ triplets
Triplets determine the _____ _____ genetic code
A "word" in the genetic code is a _____ gene
Molecules must _____ _____ to react come together
Metabolism is the total of all the _____ _____ in the body chemical reactions
All _____ is composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons matter
_____ _____ equals the number of protons atomic number
_____ _____ _____ equals the number of protons and neutrons Atomic mass number
_____ have a positive charge Protons
_____ have a neutral charge Neutrons
_____ have a negative charge Electrons
_____ bond to form molecules Atoms
Atoms share _____ to form a covalent bond electrons
Atoms _____ _____ and _____ electrons in an ionic bond give up, recieve
1. Allows for ions in solution 2. works as a lubricant 3. Aids in chemical and metabolic reactions 4. Helps with transportation of nutrients 5. Body temperature regulation Water's 5 vital functions in the body
A _____ is composed of a solute dissolved in a solvent solution
A solution is composed of a _____ dissolved in a solvent solute
A solution is composed of a solute dissolved in a _____ solvent
_____ solution is more concentrated Hypertonic
_____ solution is the same concentration Isotonic
_____ solution is less concentrated Hypotonic
The _____ _____ is used to measure acidity and alkalinity pH scale
1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acid 4 Types of Organic Molecules
_____ are classified by molecular size Carbohydrates
1. Monosaccharide 2. Disaccharides 3. Polysaccharides 3 Molecular Sizes
_____ _____ are the building units of proteins Amino acids
_____ are made up of amino acids Proteins
_____ are arranged in three-letter sequences called triplets Nucleotides
_____ determine the genetic code Triplets
A "word" in the _____ _____ is a gene genetic code
_____ must come together to react Molecules
_____ is the total of all the chemical reactants in the body Metabolism
How many genes are received from each parent? 23 from mother, 23 from father
Reaction happens faster if 1. The concentration of the reactant is increased 2. The speed of the reactants is increased by adding heat 3. A catalyst is used
Cellular respiration one of the most important chemical reactions in the body
_____ _____ is one of the most important chemical reactions in the body Cellular respiration
1. The concentration of the reactant is increased 2. The speed of the reactants is increased by adding heat 3. A catalyst is used Reactions happen faster
Cellular respiration yields energy which is used to produce molecules of _____ ATP
The _____ _____ contains the usable form of energy for the cell molecular ATP
The molecular ATP contains the _____ _____ of _____ for the cell usable form, energy
Organelles are suspended within the cell in a fluid called _____ cytoplasm
_____ are suspended within the cell in a fluid called cytoplasm Organelles
Organelles are suspended _____ _____ _____ in a fluid called cytoplasm within the cell
_____ _____ is a phospholipid bilayer that gives structure to the cell and regulates what may enter and leave the cell Cell Membrane
_____ is the part of the cell that houses the DNA Nucleus
_____ are organelles that perform cellular respiration and process the energy to ATP Mitochondria
_____ areorganelles that assemble proteins Ribosomes
_____ _____ is an extension of the nuclear membrane; rough ER is the site of protein synthesis; smooth ER is the site of lipid synthesis Endoplasmic Reticulum
_____ _____ are membrane-enclosed folds that inspect and modify proteins and lipids produced in the cell Golgi Complexes
_____ _____ membrane packages that carry materials from the Golgi complex to the cell membrane for export from the cell Secretory Vesicles
_____ membrane: bound packages of digestive enzymes Lysosomes
8 Organelles 1. Cell Membrane 2. Nucleus 3. Mitochondria 4. Ribosomes 5. Endoplasmic Reticulum 6. Golgi Complexes 7. Secretory Vesicles 8. Lysosomes
Cell Membrane keeps the _____ fluid seperate from the _____ fluid extracellular, intracellular
Cell Membrane Functions 1. Give structure to the cell 2. Define what is intracellular and extracellular 3. Regulate what may enter or leave cell by membrane transport
_____ _____ keeps the extracellular fluid separate from the intracellular fluid Cell Membrane
_____ _____ moves materials from area of high concentration to areas of low concentration with no energy required Passive Transport
_____ forces smaller molecules in solution through membrane due to greater hydrostatic pressure on one side Filtration
_____ _____ is the net movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration Simple Diffusion
_____ _____ occurs in gases and liquids and in living and non-living things Simple Diffusion
_____ _____ depends on temperature, molecular weight, concentration gradient, and membrane surface area Simple Diffusion
_____ _____ is a special type for molecules that cannot diffuse directly through the cell membrane and is also common for glucose and amino acids Facilitated Diffusion
_____ is a diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane Osmosis
Water always diffuses from a _____ solution into a _____ solution. hypotonic, hypertonic
_____ plasma can cause red blood cells to swell and burst, or lyse Hypotonic
Hypotonic can cause red blood cells to swell and burst, or _____ lyse
Hypertonic plasma can cause red blood cells to shrivel up or _____ crenate
_____ plasma can casue red blood cells to shrivel up, or crenate Hypertonic
Too much water, not enough air Hypotonic
Just enough water, just enough air Isotonic
Not enough water, too much air Hypertonic
_____ _____ moves materials across a cell membrane from areas of low concentration to areas of high concentration Active Transport
_____ _____ requires energy Active Transport
_____ _____ moves large quantities of materials, not individual molecules, across a cell membrane Bulk Transport
_____ is material moved into the cell Endocytosis
_____ is material moved out of the cell Exocytosis
Protein Synthesis' 2-step process 1. Transcription 2. Translation
Before cells divide, the _____ is tightly packed into _____ chromosomes DNA, 46
_____ is the type of cell division in sperm and egg production Meiosis
_____ is the method of cell division used by all cells other than those producing sperm and eggs Mitosis
_____ is the changing of DNA Mutation
_____ is the study of tissues Histology
4 Basic Classifications of Tissues 1. Epithelial 2. Connective 3. Muscle 4. Nervous
_____ covers and lines all body surfaces Epithelial Tissue
_____ covers organs and vessels and ducts Epithelial Tissue
_____ lines hollow organs, vessels, and ducts Epithelial Tissue
_____ contains glandular tissue Epithelial Tissue
_____ _____ are names for the shape of the cells and for the number of layers of the cells Epithelial Tissues
Shapes of cells 1. Squamous = flat 2. Cuboid = square around 3. Columnar = tall
Squamos flat
Cuboid square round
Columnar tall
Number of cell layers 1. Simple= one layer 2. Stratified= multiple layers 3. Pseudostratified= one layer that appears multilayered
Simple one layer
Stratified multiple layers
Pseudostratified one layer that appears multilayered
_____ _____ is the most abundant body tissue Connective Tissue
_____ _____ _____ _____ is found in the tendons and ligaments Dense Regular Connective Tissue
Where is Dense Regular Connective Tissue found tendons and ligaments
_____ _____ is composed of cells with a high concentration of proteins Muscle Tissue
3 Main Types of Muscle Tissue 1. Skeletal 2. Smooth 3. Cardiac
_____ _____ is found in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves Nervous Tissue
2 Main Types of Cells 1. Neurons 2. Neuroglia
Neurons are conducting impulses
Neurolgia are supporting cells that nourish, insulate, and protect the neurons
_____ _____ is normally done through hyperplasia or hypertrophy Tissue Growth
Tissues grow abnormally to form _____ or tumors neoplasms
Hyperplasia is making more cells
Hypertrophy is making existing cells bigger
Neoplasms may be _____ or _____ benign, melignant
Benign is a tumor that does not invade surrounding tissue or spread to other parts of the body and is not a cancer
Malignant is a tumor tending to become progressively worse and to result in death
Malignant neoplasms may break apart and travel to other areas of the body through _____ Metastasis
_____ is the change of tissue from one type to another Metaplasia
Metaplasia change may be _____ or _____ physiologic, pathologic
_____ is the shrinkage of tissue due to age or disuse Atrophy
_____ is the premature death of tissue Necrosis
_____ is the death of tissue due to an insufficient blood supply, usaully associated with an infection Gangrene
If tissue teath is sudden, it is called _____ Infraction
_____ is programmed cell death Apoptosis
11 Body 1. Integumentary 2. Skeletal 3. Muscular 4. Nervous 5. Endocrine 6. Cardiovasculer 7. Lymphatic 8. Respiratory 9. Digestive 10. Excretory/Urinary 11. Reproductive
Which body system acts as a barrier to protect the body from the outside world? Integumentary
Which body system supports movement, protection, blood cell production, calcium storage, and endocrine regulation? Skeletal
Which body system is responsible for the movement of the human body? Muscular
Which body system controls the body and communication among its parts? Nervous
Which body system regulates body growth, metabolism, and sexual development? Endocrine
Which body system is responsible for blood circulation through a network of vessels throughout the body to provide cells with oxygen and nutrients and helps dispose of wastes? Cardiovascular
Which body system is responsible for the removal of interstitial fluid from tissues and transports white blood cells to and from lymph nodes to bones? Lymphatic
Which body system takes in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide as we breath? Respiratory
Which body system breaks down food and delivers nutrients to cells through bloodstream? Digestive
Which body system removes liquid waste from blood, balances salt, and produces red blood cells? Urinary
Which body system is responsible for either producing egg cells and protecting and nourishing offspring until birth, or to produce and deposit sperm? Reproductive
Created by: kagome200007