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# IP Unit 3

### scientific Method and Graphing

In the Chocolate and the Scientific Method example, what was the independent variable? Why? The number of candy bars because that is what the Mrs.Brandt set different in each class or trial.
In the Chocolate and the Scientific Method example, what was the dependent variable? Why? The average quiz scores because they changed depending on the amount of candy bars promised.
In the Chocolate and the Scientific Method example, what was the control group? Why? 2nd hour. They were promised no candy. They had no changes from a normal quiz so the results of the other classes could be compared to them.
In the Chocolate and the Scientific Method example, what were some constants? Same quiz, same number of boys and girls in the classes, same age, same ability, same backgrounds
In a data table for the Chocolate and the Scientific Method, what would go in the first column and why? Trials or groups go first. Classes are the experimental groups in this experiment, so 2nd hour, 4th hour, 6th hour, 7th hour
In a data table for the Chocolate and the Scientific Method, what would go in the second column and why? Independent variable goes next, so number of candy bars in this experiment: 0,1,2,3
In a data table for the Chocolate and the Scientific Method, what would go in the third column and why? Dependent variable goes last, so quiz scores: 70%, 80%, 90%, and 95%
In the Chocolate and the Scientific Method example, what was the problem? The scientific method always starts with a question or problem. Here it was Mrs. Brandt had low test scores and is wondering how to motivate students to get better scores.
In the Chocolate and the Scientific Method example, what was the hypothesis? If a class is promised more candy bars, the will score better on a quiz.
In the Chocolate and the Scientific Method example, what was the conclusion? The more candy bars promised, the better average scores the classes got on a quiz.
What should Mrs. Brandt do at the end of this experiment and why? She should repeat it and have others repeat it to remove bias and verify her results.
Define Science Science is a method for studying the natural world. Science looks for patterns in nature
What is the name for the organized set of investigation procedures used by scientists the world over? The Scientific Method
List the steps of the scientific method in the order they are usually followed. State the problem Gather information Form a hypothesis Test the hypothesis Analyze the data Draw conclusions
A testable statement based on knowledge and observation Hypothesis
An if/then prediction about the outcome of an experiment Prediction
These are used to test a hypothesis by investigating the effect of one variable on another in a controlled environment Experiments
The variable in an experiment that is adjusted or set by the experimenter Independent variable
The variable in an experiment that changed depending on the value of the other variable. This is the one you measure and record in the experiment. Dependent variable
A variable that does not change in an experiment Constant
A group in an experiment that is used for comparison. No changes are made to it. Control group
This is when an experimenter sees what they expect to see in the results and builds scotomas to what is actually there. Because we know we do this we always repeat experiments multiple times and have others do them also to verify results Bias
This is a table used in an experiment for results. Data Table
This is an explanation based on many observations and investigations. It usually answers the question “Why?” Scientific Theory
This is a statement about something that always seems to be true. It usually answers the question “What?” Scientific Law
This is the application of science to help people in some way Technology
What is engineering? Engineering is the field of study that applies scientific knowledge to build or make something.
What Latin word does science come from? What does that word mean. Scio to know, or scientia which means knowledge.
What are the 3 branches of science? Earth science, life science, and physical science.
What branch of science studies earth and space? Earth Science
What branch of science studies matter and energy or chemistry and physics? Physical Science
What branch of science studies living things? Life Science
Chemistry is the study of _____ and how it changes due to energy matter
Physics is the study of ______ and what it does to matter energy
Scientists learn new information about the natural world through _______________. Investigations
Scientific investigations can involve ______, ________, ________. Experiments, observations, and models
____ are controlled investigations where one variable is changed to see how something else changes. Experiments
_____ are built to represent something hard to see or hard to explain Models
How is an observation different from and inference? Observations are directly sensed (see, hear, taste...). An inference is a conclusion you make based on what you have sensed.
The type of graph usually used when comparing the change in one variable with the change in another is a Line Graph
Which type of graph is used to "see" percentages? circle or pie graph
This type of graph is used when "counting" data. A bar graph
On a data table, the first column represents the Groups or Trials
On a data table, what variable is placed in the 2nd column? The independent variable
On a data table, where do we record the data gathered on the dependent variable? The third column.
When one variable increases as the other increases, and produces a straight line sloping up, we say they are ____proportional directly
If two variables are inversely proportional, one goes down as the other goes up, and the line produced slants Downward
In an experiment, a student wants to see how the amount of water affects the growth of plants, so she sets up 6 different plants and gives them 6 different amounts of water each day. What is the independent variable? amount of water given each day
In an experiment, a student wants to see how the amount of water affects the growth of plants, so she sets up 6 different plants and gives them 6 different amounts of water each day. What is the dependent variable? How much they grow
In an experiment, a student wants to see how the amount of water affects the growth of plants, so she sets up 6 different plants and gives them 6 different amounts of water each day. What would be some constants? same type of plants, same soil, same size containers...
What would a data table for this look like? plant number in column 1, amount of water in column two, size of plant in column three
Created by: tbrandt