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Pharm Ch 26

Drugs for Heart Failure

afterload the degree of pressure in the aorta that must be overcome for blood to be ejected from the left ventricle
cardiac glycosides drug class that include digitalis
cardiac output amount of blood pumped by a ventricle in 1 minute
cardiac remodeling change in the size, shape, and structure of the myocardial cells (myocytes) that occurs over time in heart failure
contractility the strength with which the myocardial fibers contract
digitalization procedure in which the dose of cardiac glycoside is gradually increased until tissues become saturated with the drug, and the symptoms of heart failure diminish
Frank-Starling law the greater the degree of stretch on the myocardial fibers, the greater will be the force by which they contract
heart failure (HF) disease in which the heart muscle cannot contract with sufficient force to meet the body's metabolic needs
inotropic effect change in the strength or contractility of the heart
peripheral edema swelling of extremities
phosphodiesterase enzyme in muscle cells that cleaves phosphodiester bonds; its inhibition increases myocardial contractility
preload degree of stretch of the cardiac muscle fibers just before they contract
adrenergic blockers decrease cardiac workload by slowing the heart rate and decreasing blood pressure
vasodilators decrease cardiac workload by dilating vessels and reducing preload
phosphodiesterase inhibitors increase cardiac output by increasing the force of myocardial contraction
ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers increase cardiac output by lowering blood pressure and decreasing blood volume
cardiac glycosides increase cardiac output by increasing the force of myocardial contraction
diuretics increase cardiac output by reducing fluid volume and decreasing blood pressure