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Pharm Ch 24

Drugs for Fluid Balance, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Disorders Key Terms

acidosis occurs when the pH of the plasma falls below 7.35
alkalosis develops when the plasma pH rises above 7.45
anions negatively charged electrolytes
buffers chemicals that help maintain normal body pH by neutralizing strong acids and bases
cations positively charged electrolytes
colloids proteins, starches, or other large molecules that remain in the blood for a long time because they are too large to easily cross the capillary membranes
crystalloids IV solutions that contain electrolytes and other substances that closely mimic the body's ECF
electrolytes ions that have positive and negative charges and are able to conduct electricity
extracellular fluid (ECF) compartment one-third of body fluid resides outside cells here; divided into two parts: fluid in the plasma, or intravascular space, and fluid in the interstitial spaces between cells
hyperkalemia serum potassium level greater than 5 mEq/L; may be caused by high consumption of potassium rich foods or dietary supplements, particularly when patients are taking potassium-sparing diuretics such as spironolactone
hypernatremia sodium excess; occurs when serum sodium level rises above 145 mEq/L
hypokalemia when serum potassium level falls below 3.5 mEq/L
hyponatremia sodium deficiency; serum sodium level less than 135 mEq/L
intracellular fluid (ICF) compartment contains water that is inside cells; accounts for 2/3 of total body water
osmolality measure of number of dissolved particles, or solutes, in 1 kg (1L) of water
osmosis water moves from areas of low solute concentration (low osmolality) to areas of high solute concentration (high osmolality)
pH how the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution is measured
tonicity the ability of a solution to cause a change in water movement across a membrane due to osmotic forces