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Pharm Ch 23

Diuretic Therapy and Drugs for Renal Failure Key Terms

carbonic anhydrase an enzyme that affects acid-base balance by its ability to form carbonic acid from water and carbon dioxide
diuretic a drug that increases the rate of urine flow
filtrate water and other small molecules readily pass through the glomerulus and enter Bowman's capsule, the first section of the nephron, and then the proximal tubule. The fluid, once it is in the nephron.
nephrons functional units of the kidneys
renal failure a decrease in the kidney's ability to maintain electrolyte and fluid balance and to excrete waste products
tubular reabsorption some substances in the filtrate cross the walls of the nephron to reenter the blood
tubular secretion certain ions and molecules that are too large to pass through Bowman's capsule may still enter the urine by crossing from the blood to the filtrate
urinalysis a basic diagnostic test that examines urine for the presence of blood cells, proteins, pH, specific gravity, ketones, glucose, and microorganisms
osmotic diuretics act on the proximal tubule and the loop of Henle to create an osmotic force that pulls water into the nephron and increases the excretion of nearly all electrolytes
thiazide diuretics act on the early distal tubule to block the reabsorption of sodium, chloride, and water. Excretion of potassium is increased.
loop diuretics act on the ascending limb of the loop of Henle to block the reabsorption of sodium, chloride, and water. Excretion of potassium is increased
potassium-sparing diuretics Act on the late distal tubule and collecting ducts to block the reabsorption of sodium and reduce the secretion of potassium (sodium-potassium exchange). Excretion of potassium is not increased



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