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Social Psych Kenrick

Chapter 3

Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic A mental shortcut through which people begin with a rough estimation as a starting point and then adjust this estimate to take into account unique characteristics of the present situation
Attribution Theories Theories designed to explain how people determine the causes of behavior
Augmenting Principle The judgment rule that states that as the number of possible causes for an even increases, our confidence that any particular cause is the true one should decrease
Availability Heuristic A mental shortcut people use to estimate the likelihood of an event by the ease with which instances of that event come to mind
Cognitive Heuristic A mental shortcut used to make a judgment
Correspondence Bias (fundamental Attribution Error) The tendency for observers to overestimate the casual influence of personality factors on behavior and to underestimate the causal role of situational influences
Correspondent Inference Theory The theory that proposes that people determine whether a behavior corresponds to an actor's internal disposition by asking whether (1) the behavior was intended, (2) the behavior's consequences were foreseeable, (3) the behavior was freely chosen,
Covariation Model The theory that proposes that people determine the cause of an actor's behavior by assessing whether other people act in similar ways (consensus), behaves similarly in similar situations (Distinctiveness), behaves similarly across time (consistency)
Discounting Principle The judgmental rule that states that as the number of possible causes for an event increases, our confidence that any particular cause is the true on should decrease
Dispositional Inference The judgment that a person's behavior has been caused by an aspect of that person's personality
Downward Social Comparison The process of comparing ourselves with those who are less well off
False Consensus Effect The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others agree with us
Representativeness Heuristic A mental shortcut people use to classify something as belonging to a certain category to the extent that it is similar to a typical case from that catagory
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy When an initially inaccurate expectation leads to actions that cause the expectation to come true
Self-Serving Bias The tendency to take personal credit for our successes and to blame external factors for our failures
Social Cognition The process of thinking about and making sense of oneself and others
Upward Social Comparison The process of comparing ourselves with those who are better off
Created by: kassmea
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