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Management Quiz 2

MGT 331

Personality traits Enduring tendencies to feel, think, and act in certain ways.
Extraversion The tendency to experience positive emotions and moods and to feel good about oneself and the rest of the world.
Negative affectivity The tendency to experience negative emotions and moods, to feel distressed, and to be critical of oneself and others.
Agreeableness The tendency to get along well with other people.
Conscientiousness The tendency to be careful, scrupulous, and persevering.
Openness to experience The tendency to be original, have broad interests, be open to a wide range of stimuli, be daring, and take risks.
Internal locus of control The tendency to locate responsibility for one's fate within oneself.
External locus of control The tendency to locate responsibility for one's fate in outside forces and to believe that one's own behavior has little impact on outcomes.
Self-esteem The degree to which individuals feel good about themselves and their capabilities.
Need for achievement The extent to which an individual has a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well and to meet personal standards for excellence.
Need for affiliation The extent to which an individual is concerned about establishing and maintaining good interpersonal relations, being liked, and having other people around them get along with one another.
Need for power The extent to which an individual desires to control or influence others.
Terminal value A lifelong goal or objective that an individual seeks to achieve.
Instrumental value A mode of conduct that an individual seeks to follow.
Norms Unwritten, informal codes of conduct that prescribe how people should act in particular situations.
Value system The terminal and instrumental values that are guiding principles in an individual's life.
Attitude A collection of feelings and beliefs.
Job satisfaction The collection of feelings and beliefs that managers have about their current jobs.
Organizational commitment The collection of feelings and beliefs that managers have about their organization as a whole.
Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) Behaviors that are not required of organizational members but that contribute to and are necessary for organizational efficiency, effectiveness, and gaining a competitive advantage.
Mood A feeling or state of mind.
Emotions Intense, relatively shortlived feelings.
Emotional intelligence The ability to understand and manage one's own moods and emotions and the moods and emotions of other people.
Organizational culture The shared set of beliefs, expectations, values, norms, standards for behavior, and work solutions that influence the ways in which individuals, groups, and teams interact with one another and cooperate to achieve organizational goals.
Attraction-selection-attrition (ASA) framework A model that explains how personality may influence organizational culture.
Organizational socialization The process by which newcomers learn an organization's values and norms and acquire the work behaviors necessary to perform jobs effectively.
Ethical dilemma The quandry people find themselves in when they have to decide if they should act in a way that might help another person or group even though doing so might go against their own self-interest.
Ethics The inner-guiding moral principles, values, and beliefs that people use to analyze or interpret a situation and then decide what is the right or appropriate way to behave.
Stakeholders The people and groups that supply a company with its productive resources and so have a claim on and stake in the company.
Utilitarian rule An ethical decision is a decision that produces the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
Moral rights rule An ethical decision is one that best maintains and protects the fundamental or inalienable rights and privileges of the people affected by it.
Justice rule An ethical decision is a decision that distributes benefits and harms among people and groups in a fair, equitable, or impartial way.
Practical rule An ethical decision is one that a manager has no reluctance about communicating to people outside the company because the typical person in a society would think it is acceptable.
Trust A person's confidence and faith in another person's goodwill.
Reputation The esteem or high repute that individuals or organizations gain when they behave ethically.
Societal ethics Standards that govern how members of a society should deal with one another in matters involving issues such as fairness, justice, poverty, and the rights of the individual.
Occupational ethics Standards that govern how members of a profession, trade, or craft should conduct themselves when performing work-related tasks.
Individual ethics Personal standards and values that determine how people view their responsibilities to others and how they should act in situations when their own self-interest is at stake.
Organizational ethics The guiding practices and beliefs through which a particular company and its managers view their responsibility toward their stakeholders.
Social responsibility The way a company's managers and employees view their duty or obligation to make decisions that protect, enhance, and promote the welfare and well-being of stakeholders and society as a whole.
Obstructionist approach Companies and their managers choose not to behave in a socially responsible way and behave unethically and illegally.
Defensive approach Companies and their managers behave ethically to the degree that they stay within the law and abide strictly with legal requirements.
Accommodative approach Companies and their managers behave legally and ethically and try to balance the interests of different stakeholders as the need arises.
Proactive approach Companies and their managers actively embrace socially responsible behaviors going out of their way to learn about the needs of different stakeholder groups and utilizing organizational resources to promote the interests of all stakeholders.
Ethics ombudsman A manager responsible for teaching ethical standards to all employees and monitoring their conformity to those standards.
Diversity Differences among people in age, gender, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, socioeconomic background, and capabilities/disabilities.
Glass ceiling A metaphor alluding to the invisible barriers that prevent minorities and women from being promoted to top corporate positions.
Distributive justice A moral principle calling for the distribution of pay raises, promotions, and other organizational resources to be based on meaningful contributions that individuals have made and not on personal characteristics over which they have no control.
Procedural justice A moral principle calling for the use of fair procedures to determine how to distribute outcomes to organizational members.
Perception The process through which people select, organize, and interpret what they see, hear, touch, smell, and taste to give meaning and order to the world around them.
Schema An abstract knowledge structure that is stored in memory and makes possible the interpretation and organization of information about a person, event, or situation.
Gender schemas Preconceived beliefs or ideas about the nature of men and women, their traits, attitudes, behaviors, and preferences.
Stereotype Simplistic and often inaccurate beliefs about the typical characteristics of particular groups of people.
Bias The systematic tendency to use information about others in ways that result in inaccurate perceptions.
Overt discrimination Knowingly and willingly denying diverse individuals access to opportunities and outcomes in an organization.
Mentoring A process by which an experienced member of an organization (the mentor) provides advice and guidance to a less experienced member (the protégé) and helps the less experienced member learn how to advance in the organization and in his or her career.
Quid pro quo sexual harassment Asking for or forcing an employee to perform sexual favors in exchange for some reward or to avoid negative consequences.
Hostile work environment sexual harassment Telling lewd jokes, displaying pornography, making sexually oriented remarks about someone's personal appearance, and other sex-related actions that make the work environment unpleasant.
Created by: Xtreame36