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# Test 7: Chapters 4,5

### Energy and Machines

The relationship among mass, force, and acceleration is explained by which law? Newton's 2nd Law of Motion
Newton's first law is also called the Law of _____. Inertia
Acceleration is rate of change of ____. Velocity
A feather will fall through the air more slowly than a brick because of _____. Air resistance
The relationship among speed, distance, and time is _____. S=d/t
When you graph the motion of an object, you put ____ on the horizontal axis and ____ on the vertical axis. time, distance
For any object, the greater the force that's applied to it, the greater its ____ will be. acceleration (F=m*a)
The statement "to every action there is an equal and opposite reaction" is ____. Newton's 3rd Law
When two balls collide, the momentum of the balls after the collision is explained by ____. The Law of Conservation of Momentum
Newton's first law of motion states that an object remains at rest unless a(n) ____ force acts on it. Unbalanced
The kinetic energy of an object increases as its ____ increases. Velocity (KE= 1/2m*v2)
Increasing the speed of an object ____ its potential energy. does not change (PE= mgh)
The SI unit for energy is the ____. Joule
You can calculate kinetic energy by using the equation ____. KE (J) = 1/2 m (kg) * v2 (m2/s2)
You can calculate gravitational potential energy by using the equation ____. GPE (J) = m (kg) * 9.8 m/s2 * h (m)
According to the law of conservation of energy, the total amount of energy in the universe ____. remains constant
A device that does work with only one movement and changes the size or direction of a force is a(n) ____. Simple machine
The amount by which a machine multiplies an effort force is called the ____. mechanical advantage
When two or more simple machines work together, they are called a(n)____. Compound machine
The unit of power is the ____. Watts
Machines make tasks easier by changing either the magnitude or the direction of the _____ needed. force
6 types of simple machines Lever, pulley, wheel and axle, inclined plane, wedge, screw
At what point on a roller coaster is the gravitational potential energy (GPE) the lowest? at the lowest point (Highest kinetic energy)
What kind of energy is store by green plants? Chemical energy (Glucose from photosynthesis)
____________________ is a measure of how much of the work put into a machine is changed to useful work put out by the machine. Efficiency
You can determine how much energy various foods can give you by checking their ____________________ content. Calorie
According to the law of conservation of energy, energy can change ____________________, but it cannot be created or destroyed under ordinary conditions. Forms
Efficiency equation Output work (J) / Input work (J) * 100
Work equation Work (Joules)= Applied Force (N) * Distance (m)
The average kinetic energy of an object's atoms or molecules is _____. Temperature
The transfer of energy that does NOT require matter is ____. Radiation
Energy from the Sun travels to Earth as ____. Radiant energy
The transfer of thermal energy by collisions between particles that make up matter, (direct contact) Conduction (touching a hot stove)
The transfer of thermal energy in a fluid by the movements of warmer or cooler fluid. (currents in fluids) Convection (ceiling fan)
Thermal energy that flows from something at a higher temperature to something at a lower temperature is _____. Heat
Created by: kbordelon2