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Sociology Exam 2

Social Categories are ranked by what? Economic class, social prestige, power
Social Stratification Systematic inequalities between groups of people that arise as intended or unintended consequences of social processes and relationships
Dialectic Relationship A 2 directional relationship leading to compromise and conclusion- each party is dependent on the other
Standards of inequality: opportunity, condition, outcome Opportunity: every individual has an equal chance to obtain wealth Condition: everyone should have an equal starting point in life Outcome: every individual must end up with the same amount of wealth regardless their occupation
Free rider problem When more than one person is responsible for accomplishing something, incentives disappear
Estate System limited mobility based on politics
Endogamy marriage within one group
Closed vs. Open systems of social mobility Closed: very little opportunity to move from one class to another Open: ample opportunities to move from one class to another
Structural mobility changes in the social status of large numbers of people due to structural changes in society
Socioeconomic status an individuals position in the stratified social order
Wealth vs. Income Wealth: a family's or individual's net worth Income: money received by a person for work, from transfers, or from returns on investments
Contemporary American Stratification (upper class, middle class, etc.) Upper class (top 1%), upper middle class(professionals), middle class(white collar), working class(blue collar), lower class (individuals whos income is less than the predetermined poverty line)
The Underclass the poor are not only different in their inability to take advantage of society's resource, but are also increasingly deviant and even dangerous to the rest of us
Relative Poverty standard of living a % of median income in a given location
Absolute Poverty a measure of poverty based on meeting basic necessities
Feminism the belief that women and men should be equal in opportunities and respect
Sex vs. gender sex: biological differences that distinguish males from females gender: a social position, the set of social arrangements that are built around normative sex categories
Gender essentialism gender roles are genetic or biological in origin or fixed
Biological Determinism what you do in the social world is a direct result of who you are in the world
Constructionalist approach to gender notions of gender are socially determined gender is not fixed or natural
Gender roles set of behavioral normals assumed to accompany one's status as a male or female
Emphasized Femininity the idealized version of femininity often emphasized by looks
Hegemonic Masculinity men are dominant and privileged and this dominance and privilege is invisible
Hyper-masculinity emphasis on physical strength, aggression, and sexuality an exaggeration of the male stereotype
Structural Functionalism and gender inequality each sex is assigned role and given a script that actors carry out and these roles are played as they lead to the society to function as a whole
Parson's sex role theory the nuclear family is the ideal arrangement as it reproduces workers
Conflict theory and patriarchy men have historically held more access to resources and privileges and have sought to maintain their dominance
Symbolic interactionism and gender gender is learned through socialization and a product of our interactions; gender inequality is reproduced through interaction with family, peers, schools, media
Black Feminism we do alot more than gender. early feminism was by about and for while middle class women
The myth of Race the biology of race does not exist
Race vs. Ethnicity (voluntary vs involuntary) Race: externally imposed, involuntary, physical differences, hierarchial, exclusive, unequal Ethnicity: shared culture, language, geographical origin, religion, values, voluntary, self defined, culture,
Racism the belief that members of seperate races possess different and unequal traits
Scientific Racism cataloging physical differences
Ethocentrism the belief that one's own culture or group is superior to others, and the tendency to view all other cultures from the perspective of one's own
Ontological Equality to question race as a basis for judgement
Social Darwinism and Race survival of the fittest
Eugenics races vary due to seperate and distinctive reproductive genetic histories
Nativism protecting the indigenous land from 'dangerous' immigrants
The One-Drop Rule if you are 1/16th african american, you are black
Miscengenation interracial marriage
Racialization the formation of a new racial identity by drawing ideological boundaries of difference around a formerly unnoticed group of people
Prejudice negative attitudes towards members of a specific group
Individual Discrimination one person practicing negative behavior towards another
Institutional Discrimination social institutions policies and/or practices that systematically disadvantage certain groups
Caste System No social mobility- religion based
Class System Economically based hierarchial system class identity corresponds with roles
Status Hierarchy System based on social prestige high degree of social mobility
Elite-mass dichotomy system leadership based on ability and achievement
Created by: sbm4175