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Abnormal Psychology

Chapter 11 - Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia Disorder marked by breakdown in cognitive, emotional and behavioral functions. A rare but devestating illness.
What are delusions? Extremely irrational beliefs remain despite lack of supporting evidence.
Most common types of delusions Delusion of persecution, reference, being controlled, grandeur, thought broadcasting and thought insertion.
Thought Disorder Breakdown in processing of thoughts which leads to distorted speech. Distorted speech is however not unique for Schizophrenia.
Tangential speech When a person goes on a tangin before getting to the point
Loose associations When a person goes on a tangin without reaching a point.
Poverty of Speech Very vague speech, usually slow and convey very little info.
Thought Blocking When a person starts talking then suddenly stops.
Neologisms Made up words
Perseveration Repeating things.
Clanging Saying a string of words that all rhyme.
Hallucinations Perception that occurs in the absence of external stimuli.
What is the most common hallucination? Auditory
Variations in auditory hallucinations 3rd person commentary and command hallucinations.
Anhedonia Inability to experience pleasure. No change in mood.
Flat Affect Behavior that doesn't express any change in mood. Voice and expressions usually just stayes flat.
Inappropriate Affect Example: Laughing at a funeral.
Avolition Inability to persist in goal-directed behavior.
Catatonia Posturing or mannerisms. Example, freezing in a posture for an hour.
Negativistic Catatonia Staying at a posture and being very stiff, almost impossible to move.
Waxy flexibility Catatonia Staying at a postire and being very flexible and moveable.
Echolalia Repeating what people say to you
Echopraxia Repeating, immitating motormovements.
Positive symptoms Added behavior that wasn't present in the person's life before Schizophrenia.
Negative symptoms Missing behavior that was present before in a person before Schizophrenia Example: flat affect.
Psychosis versus Schizophrenia Psychosis: Problems with knowing what is reality and what is not. Schizophrenia: a psychotic disorder because it makes people have difficulties with knowing what's reality and what's not.
Diagnosis of Schizophrenia 1.Two or more over a month: Delusions, hallucinations, disordered speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior, negative symptoms. 2.Marked impairment in fuctioning 3.Signs of disorder for 6 months 4.symptoms not due to drugs or medical conditions.
Paranoid Type or more delusions or frequent auditory hallicinatiosn 2.delusional tend to be around a theme. Example: persecution, grandeur, jealousy.
Disorganized Type Disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, flator inappropriate affect. Delusions tend to be disorganized (religious or sexual. Often neglect hygiene.
Catatonic Type Impaired motor behavior. Periods of stupor or catalepsy. Behavioral negativism. Posturing or mannerisms. Echolalia or echopraxia. Excessive, purposeless behavior.
Undifferentiated type Major symptoms of schizophrenia but doesn't fit in one preticular type. Might fit on none or in many.
Residual Type Person who used to have schizophrenia and recovered but still have symptoms but not enough for full schizophrenic diagnosis.
Brief psychotic disorder One of more positive symptoms of schizophrenia that lasts less than a month and is caused by trauma orextreme stress.
Folie a deux (Shared psychotic disorder) Delusions due to living with someone else with delusions. Little is known about this condition.
Genetic factors for Schizophrenia Family studies and twin studies where made to determine the cause of Schizophrenia and it whowed that there is a genetic factor to the illness. The more genes you share with a person with schizophrenia, the bigger the risk is that you get it.
Prevelenace of Schizophrenia amongst the general population 3%
The prevelance of Schizophrnia. Monozygotic twins versus fraternal twins. If a monozygotic twin has schizophrenia, there is a 48% that the other one will get it. If a fraternal twin has schizophrenia there is only a 17% chance that the other one will get it.
Environmental factors There are proof that says that the environment can play an important factor to the cause of Schizophrenia. Ex: Not both of monozygotic twins have to get it. Spouses of person with schizophrenia can get it, as well as half siblings.
Studies of the Offsrping of twins Cildren fall in 1 of 4 groups. 4 groups: either the twins are 1.identical or 2.fraternal, either 3.parent had schizophrenia or 4.twin of parent had schizophrenia.
Result of studies of the offspring of twins Three groups were the same: mom has schizophrenia but moms identical twin doesnt, mom doesn't but moms identical twin does, mom has but moms fraternal doesnt. The only one that was radically less was: moms fraternal twin does but mo doesn't.
Search for behavioral markers of schizophrenia Smooth-pursuit eye movement. Tracking an object with head still: eyes move jerky. And many of their relatives!
Dopamine Hypothesis Antipsychotic drug. Drugs found to reduce posative symptoms, they blockes action of neurostransmitters. Conclusion: schizophrenia related to too much dopamine activity. Proof: drugs that increase dopamine cab produce schizophrenic symptoms.
Biochemical factors: Brain absnormalities 3 of 4 adults with schizophrenia show loss of brain tissue. Evidence: enlarged ventricles and reduced brain tissue volume.
Hypofrontality in Pre-frontal cortex Prefrontal cortex handles planning, expresses emotions and appropriate social functioning and organizes though processes. Hypofrontality decreases brain activity in pre-frontal cortex. This occurs with schizophrenia: could explain negative sympotms.
Schizophrenia caused by flu? Severe flu during 2nd trimester can results in a higher risk of schizophrenia for child.
Stress causes Schizophrenia Stress may activate underlying vulerability and or increase risk of relapse.
Family interactions: Expressed emotions Low tolerance and empathy for the ill family member can result in relapse. Living in a hostile and critical household increase relapse. Ex: patient with EE 50% and patient without EE 14%
Diathesis-Stress model Diathesis is the predisposition to develop schizophrenia, most often biological. Stess combined with the diathesis can lead to schizophenia
Historical medical treatments Lobotomy, electroconvulsive therapy, insulin shock therapy (induse seizures and then coma, when the patient wakes up he is supposebly treated.)
Antipsychotic medication Ex. Haldol, Thorazine, Stelazine. They block dopamine receptors in the brain. They primarily help positive symptoms.
Short term Side effects of antipsychotic medication Extrapyramidal side effects (parkinson-like) such as stiff muscles and spasms
Long term die effects of antipsychotic medication 1 in 4 develop Tardive Dyskinsesia (TD). Involuntary movements (face, mouth, neck, arms, legs)
Individual and group psychotherapy Focus on stress reduction, social skills, dealing with criticism, and medication compliance
Created by: rebecka_n87
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