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Abnormal Psychology

Chapter 1 Intro to Abnormal Psychology (Comer)

What are the criteria for determining abnormality? 1.Social Deviance 2.Unusualness 3.Discomfort 4.Mental illness 5.Maladaptiveness What was Paracelsus' Astrological Model? Paracelsus was a Swiss physician that proposed a theory about how the starst and the moon could explain abnormal behavior. Coined the term "lunatic". Modern Psychoanalytic perspectives to mental illness focuses on the role of the unconscious
Social Deviance Goes against standards of society and cultural relativism. Witchcraft During the 11th century you might have been accused of being a witch if you were single or just eccentirc. The pope decreed that witches be executed. Modern behavioristic views of mental illness role of reinforcement and punishment in determining behavior
Unusualness Rare, statistical deviance and also somewhat ties to culture. What was the Malleus Maleficarum? A manual written by two priests that outlined tests for how to determine if someone was a witch. For example: Water-floeat Test A modern cognitive approach to mental illness How people think about their world determines their emotions and behavior
Discomfort The amount of personal distress and discomfort a person i experiencing. 1700s Leaches Leaches was used to suck the blood/illness out of you. if the leaches didn't help they would cut you open and let you blees. The artificial leach was invented in the 1800s. Who was Dorothea Dix? She advocated moral therapy in America, initiated legal forms for jails and asylums as well as established over 30 mental institutions.
Evidence of a psychological disorder The 4 d's: Dysfunction, Distress, deviance and danger Hippocrates early Biological Model Hippocrates believed that abnormal behavior was due to physical disease. How did moral theray look in the asylums from the 1700s to the 1900s? Restraines where removed and patients where treated as normal as possible. Treatment was work, fresh air and social interactions. Based on that mental illness was due to separation from nature and stress of rapid social change. The grew food + events.
What are the three general theories of psychological disorders? Biological, supernatural and psychological. Hippocrates Humoral Theory Disorders caused by imbalance in four major bodily fluids; blood, black bile, yellow bile and phlehm. Too much black bile would result in depression. Bloodletting and vomiting was common treatments. Assumed cause of insanity in the 1800s Bilogical and "moral" causes caused insanity.
How was abnormal behavior viewed in the Stone ages and how was it cured? Used a tool to drill a hole in your head to let the evil spirits out. Called Trephination. What did the Humoral Theory foreshadow? The modern findings or neurotransmitters. An intergrationists modern view of abnormal behavior complex interaction of biological, psychological and sociocultural factors.
How was abnormal behavior viewed in the middle ages and how was it cured? Abnormal behavior was caused by demonic possession and exorcism was used to persuade the demon to leave the body. If the demons did not respond to the exorcism, body pain was used to encourage the demon to leave. Ex: The rack. Where did hysteria come from? Multiple aches and other bodily symptoms with no other apparent physical illness was caused by the wandering uterus. Which led to the word hysteria. The treatment was to get married, have sex or drive the uterus back to place by strong smells. What did Thomas Szasz do? argued that the whole concept of mental illness is invalid, a myth of sorts. "problems in living" not something wrong within the person.
The rise of Asylums In the 1500s in europe mentally disturbed people was seen as a threat to society and where put in "Madhouses".Patients rarely got treatment and conditions were horrible. St Mary's Bethlehem The Bedlam used mentally disturbed as entertainment for the townspeople. Patients where often tied or chained up. Co-morbidity presence of 2 or more disorders inn the same person
most common mental disorder depressive disorder, phobias, alcohol abuse Social workers consel, intervention therapy help get on feet (77% female) Psychiatrist diagnose, prescribe treatment mediations (25% female)
Psychologist Assessment (52%F) Conselors 50% What is psychological abnormality deviant, distressful, dysfunctional, dangerous
what does psychological abnormality depend on? norms and values of society what is treatment? therapy; systematic process for helping people overcome psychological difficulties What is abnormal psychology? scientific study of mental problems
What was Trephination? Instrument used to cut away circular section of the skull what is exorcism? tortured scared prayed and plead for sprints to leave Humors believed what that we have yellow bile black bile blood and phlegm, too much yellow- frenzy(mania) too much black-depression(sadness)
How was Europe in the middle ages? Excorcism; rid the persons body of the devil that possesed it. All were convinced they were posseded by wolf spider, tarantula. good vs. evil what does lycanthropy mean? posessed by wolves what is tyrantism? bit by a spider
Who was the first mental illness specialist Johann Weyer, formed asylums Who were Pinel and Turke? First supporters and activists of moral treatment (benjamin rush, more responsible) what is idiographic? individual information about clients that could help a person overcome problems specific to them
what is an Assessment collecting information to reach a conclusion Clinical assessment How and why a person is behaving abnormally using interviews tests and observations Standardize set up common steps to be followed no matter who is administering, also helpful to do when reading so we can avoid biasis
Reliability consistancy of measures should answer the same in the same situations Interrater reliability needs more than one judge because it isnt black or white unstructured interview ask open ended questions, usually for humanistic and psychodynamic
validity measure of consistency of test or research results face validity may seem correct because it would make sense but could be wrong What happens in the first contact with a clinical interview detailed list of problems feels and reason for therapy
Structured interview Designed for same questions for everyone regaurdless of answer, behavioral and cognitive uses Mental Status exam set of questions that evaluate clients awareness and regaurd to time place attention memory judgement and insight through content mood and appearance What are the limitations of clinical tests? clients may alter themselves for personal reasons, we rely on first impressions too highly, people respond differently to inverviewers based on race gender and age
test device for gathering information,500 in the US Projective test Do little tasks like draw or interpret for inner feelings to come out Rorschach Test a projective test, inkblot; those suffering with depression see diff from those with schezophrenia
Thematic appreciation Projective test 30 general pictures(blck &white) of people, you have to tell a story; what's happening what lead to it, feelings and thinking, and the outcome Sentence Completion projective spring board for discussion drawings Projective Must draw humans and the details reveal
Personality Inventories ask questions about behavior beliefs and feelings MMPI, MMPI-2, MMPI-A minnesota multiphasic personality inventor and mmpi-2 for adults, mmpi-a for adolescents MMPI Details more than 500 true false questions with 10 scales rating 0-120 for each. 70 is deviant. 10 scales, profile take place that indicate person's general personality
Psychathenia Obsessions compulsions abnormal fears guilt and indecisiveness Response inventories more specific questions about themselves with emotion or social or cognitive to understand its role in a person Affective inventories measures severity as well; anxiety,depression, anger
cognitive inventories reveal a person's typical thoughts and assumptions Psychophysilogical measures physical response to psychological things like heart rate temperature and blood pressure Example of psychophysilogical test polygraph test (lie detector)
neuro test electroencephalogram- brain waves and neron fire (EEG) cat scan x-ray PET scan motion picture of chemicals
MRI magnets(oxygen atoms) create detailed picture neuro psycho test measure cognitive perceptual and motor of certain task and interprit abnormal brain problems. ID test Judge reason and comprehend well can only be indirectly measured
Binet iq test Which of the following statements is most accurate regarding the incidence of psychological abnormality, historically and worldwide? it appears in all cultures at all periods of time Which aspect of the definition of abnormality includes the inability to care for oneself and work productively? dysfunction
Brilliant scholars or champion athletes are not considered clinically abnormal because their behaviors are valued by the culture If you wanted a career in which you focus on detecting, assessing, and treating abnormal patterns of functioning, you should look into becoming a clinical practitoner The somatogenic treatment for mental illness that seems to be the most successful is the use of various medications
The largest percentage of survery respondents believe that people bring mental illness upon themselves Hippocrates' model of mental illness would be described as.. somatogenic The early psychogenic treatment that was advocated by Mesmer, Josef Breuer, and even Sigmund Freud was hypnotism
freud was all about.. unconscious axis 4 special psychosocial or enviornmental problems example school or housing problems axis 5 global assessment of functioning GAF of 1-100 on severity
axis 1 an extensive list of clinical sydromes causing impairment ex. major depressive disorder axis 2 Personality disorder/ mental retardation example dependent personality disorder axis 3 information concerning relevant general medical condition example diabetes
prehistoric societies work of evil spirits trephination n excorsism to treath abnormal behavior Greeks and romans hippocrates beleive abnormal behavior caused by humors; black&yelhlegmow bile. pl renaissance warehoused in asylums
19th century housed in hospitals; minimal care early 20th century Ab psych caused by physical factors, hypnotism to treat patients with histerical disorders, syndrome cluster of symptoms that usually occur together
DSM-IV-TR listed disorders anxiety disorder, mood disorder, mental disorders, personality disorder. Clinical Assesment to be useful, must be standardized, reliable, and valid. diagnosis choose from... DSM-iv-tr approx. 400 disorders
dangers of diagnosis and labeling prejudice that labels aroused; clinician fall to bias misconceptions
Dr. Philippe Pinel Started the beginning of Moral Therapy. Was a french physician in charge of La Bicetre hostpital. Argued that absnormal behavior was due to a disease. Pushed for the beed of dignity and tranquility for patiens. Which was the first public hospital in America exclusively for mentally ill? Public Hospital of Williamsburg Most common categories any anxiety disorder, mood disorder, substance abuse disorder
Created by: rebecka_n87
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