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Pharmacology mod 1-4

Pharmacology

TermDefinition
what are the routes of medication administration? A-Aural, B-Buccal, O-Optic, R-Rectal, T-Topical, I- Intramuscular, O-Oral, N-Nasogastric, I-Intravenous, S-Subcutaneous, T-Transdermal, N-Nasal, R-Respiratory
What is a drug? Any substance taken by mouth; Injected into a muscle, the skin, a blood vessel or cavity of the body; or applied topically to treat or prevent a disease or condition.
Define HALF LIFE ? THE TIME TAKEN FOR THE CONCENTRATION OF THE DRUG IN PLASMA TO DROP TO 50% OF ITS INITIAL LEVEL
Define DISINTERGRATION ? BREAK UP OF A TABLET INTO SMALL FRAGMENTS (STARCH IS USEFUL HERE)
Define DISSOLUTION? THE DISPERSAL OF A DRUG AS SOLOUTE PARTICALS IN THE BODY FLUID WITH WHICH IT IS IN CONTACT. PARTICAL SIZE IS AN IMPORTANT FACTOR IN THIS
Define BIOAVAILABILITY? THE EXTENT TO WHICH A DRUG CAN BE ABSORBED INTO THE BLOOD
What are the 7 rights to drug administration Right drug Right dose Right client Right route of administration Right time Right documentation Right to refuse
What are the three types of drug names?  Trade  Generic  Chemical
what are three drug Classification types Therapeutic: Mode of Action: Molecular Structure:
what are the grouping of drugs by function Antipyretic Analgesia – NSAIDs, Paracetamol, Aspirin, Opioids Anticonvulsant Antiemetic
DEFINE PHARMACOKINETICS? THE MOVEMENT OF DRUGS INSIDE THE BODY.
what are the 4 STAGES OF PHARMACOKINETICS? Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion.
DEFINE ABSORPTION ? THE MOVEMENT OF A DRUG FROM ITS SITE OF ADMINISTRATION INTO THE BLOOD STREAM
DEFINE DISTRIBUTION? THE TRANSFER OF A DRUG FROM THE SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION (BLOOD) TO THE SITE OF ACTION
Weak acid in acidic environment is ? lipophilic, well absorbed
Weak acid in alkaline environment is ? lipophobic, poorly absorbed
Weak Base in acidic environment s ? lipophobic,poorly absorbed
Weak Base in alkaline environment is ? lipophilic, well absorbed
Define Volume of Distribution? A measure of extent of penetration of a drug into various fluid and tissue compartments
Define Metabolism? Purpose is to alter the chemical properties of a drug to make them less lipophilic and more readily excreted
what is phase 1 of metabolism ? Phase 1, enzymes modify the drug through the process of - Oxidation - Hydrolysis - Reduction
what is phase 2 of metabolism ? Phase 2, a drug or phase 1 metabolite is conjugated (joined) with a polar molecule to render the product soluble for excretion.
The principal site of drug and metabolite excretion is? Kidneys and the GI tract. Other routes of excretion are saliva, sweat, tears and breath.
Define Pharmacodynamics? The mechanism whereby drugs exert their effect on the body
The most common environmental interaction outside the body is? Storage - Shelf Life - Expiry date - Appropriate storage (light, oxygen & moisture)
Define Agonist ? - A drug that stimulates a receptor (mimics the action of the body’s own endogenous chemical).
Define Antagonist? - a drug blocks a receptor and prevents the endogenous (having an internal cause or origin) chemical acting on the receptor.
define Partial Agonist ? - Are drugs with a lower affinity.
define Inverse Agonist ? Are drugs that instead of actually blocking a receptor stimulate the receptor in such a way that the opposite effect to the normal agonist effect is seen.
define Competitive inhibitor ? Where an enzyme meets a look-alike substrate, they interact at the enzymic binding site, but, because the enzyme cannot do anything with the look-alike, it is discarded unchanged..
define Non Competitive inhibitor ? - In non-competitive inhibition the inhibitor binds to a part of the enzymes structure that is distinct and often remote from the binding site. This causes a conformational change in the tertiary structure of the enzyme, rendering it inactive.
define Hypertonic? - Solution that is relatively higher solute concentration
define Hypotonic? - Solution that is relatively lower solute concentration
define Isotonic ? - Solution that is the same concentration
define Affinity ? - Affinity is defined as the extent of binding of a drug to a receptor
define Efficacy ? - Efficacy is the ability of a drug to produce an effect at a receptor
define Specificity ? - Specificity relates to a degree of selectivity – one drug tends to interact with one subtype of receptors rather than another.
define Potency ? - Potency is the relative amount of drug that has to be present to produce a desired effect
what is the First Messanger ? - The interaction between a drug and receptor
what is the Second Messenger ? - Molecules that relay signals received at receptors on the cells surface
provide the concept of an allergic drug reaction ? Immune system attacks the allergen using protective antibodies called immunoglobulin.
what are the 4 different types of drug reactions? - Type 1 – Anaphylaxis - Type 2 – Cytotoxic - Type 3 - Serum sickness - Type 4 – Delayed
Pharmacokinetics are altered by age by ? - The very young and the very old have poor peripheral perfusion and decreased skeletal muscle mass - Infants have erratic gastric acid secretions - Infants and older people have lower plasma protein levels.
What are the3 methods for calculating doses for children ? - Age: Young’s rule. - Body weight: Clarkes body weight rule. - Body surface area: Clarkes surface area rule.
Define Excretion - Drug is eliminated either in its original form (unbound molecule) or modified (metabolism) as metabolite.
what are the 4 main principals associated with management of poisoning ?. - Life support - Clinical assessment - Decontamination and detoxification - Neutralisation and elimination of the poison
what are the types of medicines used in treating poisoning ? - Adsorbents: - Iso-Osmatic Laxatives - Emetics: - Venom:
What are the 4 principals of acute clinical overdose management - Life support - Assessment of the affected person - Decontamination & Detoxification - Neutralisation and elimination
What medications are use to treat alcohol addiction ? - Disulfiram - Acamprosate - Naltrexone - Thiroridazine
what medications are used to treat Nicotine addiction - Bupropion - Varenicline
Created by: bryan1111