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Treating seizures with benzodiazepines

Like barbiturates, ________ intensify the effect of ______ in the brain. benzodiazepines; GABA
The benzodiazepines bind directly to the GABA receptor, suppressing abnormal _______ _______. neuronal foci
Benzodiazepines used in treating ________ include clonazepam (Klonopin), clorazepate (Tranxene), lorazepam (Ativan), and diazepam (Valium). epilepsy
Benzodiazepines treat _______ seizures and ________ seizures. absence; myoclonic
_______ diazepam is used to treat status epilepticus. Parenteral
A patient's dose of benzodiazepines may need to be frequently adjusted due to _______. tolerance
Seizures may ______ only after a few months due to tolerance of benzodiazepines. recur
Benzodiazepines are generally not used ______ in seizure pharmacotherapy. alone
Benzodiazepines serve as _______ to other anti seizure drugs for short-term seizure control. adjuncts
The _______ are one of the most widely prescribed classes of drugs. benzodiazepines
Benzodiazepines are not only used to control _______. seizures
Benzodiazepines are also used for _______, skeletal muscle spasms, and _______ ________ ________. anxiety; alcohol withdrawal symptoms
Common adverse effects of benzodiazepines include drowsiness, sedation and _______. ataxia
Laryngospasm, respiratory depression, ________ ________, and coma are serious adverse effects of using benzodiazepines. cardiac collapse
Diazepam (_________) is in the therapeutic class anti seizure drug. Valium
Diazepam binds to the GABA receptor-_______ ________ throughout the CNS. chloride channels
Diazepam produces its effects by _______ neuronal activity in the limbic system and subsequent impulses that might be transmitted to the _______ activating system. suppressing; reticular
When administering diazepam (Valium) IV, monitor _______ every 5 to 15 minutes. respirations
Diazepam is a pregnancy category _____ drug. D
Tolerance to diazepam may develop after about ____ weeks. 4
When used orally, ______ therapeutic effect may take from 1 to 2 weeks. maximum
Effects if diazepam are suppression of _______ _______ ______ that may cause seizures, calming without strong sedation and _______ ________ relaxation. abnormal neuronal foci; skeletal muscle
When using in injectable form, diazepam should be avoided under which conditions? shock, coma, depressed vital signs, obstetrical patients and infants less that 30 days of age
In tablet form, diazepam should not be used in infants less than ____ _____ of age. 6 months
In patients with acute narrow-angle glaucoma or untreated open-angle glaucoma __________ should not be used. diazepam
Diazepam should not be taken with _____ or other CNS depressants because of combined sedation effects. alcohol
Cimetidine, oral contraceptives, valproic acid, and metropolol, which ______ diazepam's action. potentiate
Levodopa and ______ decrease diazepam's action. barbiturates
Diazepam increases the levels of _______ in the bloodstream and may cause phenytoin toxicity. phenytoin
The herbs ______ and _______ may cause increased drug effect. kava; chamomile
If an overdose of diazepam occurs, administer ______, a specific benzodiazepine receptor agonist to reverse CNS depression. flumazenil (Romazicon)



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