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Treating seizures with barbiturates

Barbiturates generally _______ the firing of CNS neurons. depress
_________ are organic compounds derived from barbituric acid. Barbiturates
The antiseizure properties of ________ were discovered in 1912, and this drug is still commonly prescribed for seizures. phenobarbital
Barbiturates generally have a _____ margin of safety. low
Barbiturates have a _____ potential for dependence. high
Barbiturates cause profound ________ _________. CNS depression
Barbiturates intensify the effects of _______ in the brain. GABA
__________ is able to suppress abnormal neuronal discharges without causing sedation. Phenobarbital
Phenobarbital is inexpensive, long acting, and produces a _______ _______ of adverse effects. low incidence
When phenobarbital is given orally, it may take _______ _______ to achieve optimum effects. several weeks
Phenobarbital is sometimes a preferred drug for the pharmacotherapy of _______ seizures. neonatal
Barbiturates are effective against all major seizure types except ________ seizures. absence
Other than phenobarbital, _________ is occasionally used for epilepsy treatment. mephobarbital
Mephobarbital (Mebaral) is converted to phenobarbital in the ______ and offers no significant advantages over phenobarbital. liver
________ (Mysoline) has a pharmocolgic profile similar to phenobarbital. Primidone
Primidone is among the drugs used effectively to ________ GABA action. potentiate
Barbiturates were once used on a regular basis to terminate the condition of _______ _________. status epilepticus
Intravenous administration of __________ is the preferred treatment for status epilepticus. diazepam
A common adverse effect of barbiturates is ________. somnolence
Serious adverse effects of barbiturates include agranulocytosis, dependence, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, angioedema, ________, respiratory depression, CNS depression, coma, and death. laryngospasm
Luminal is the trade name of which barbiturate? phenobarbital
What category of controlled substance does phenobarbital belong to? IV
Phenobarbital is a pregnancy category ____ drug. D
With overdose, _______ may cause severe respiratory depression, CNS depression, coma, and death. phenobarbital (Luminal)
Common side effects of phenobarbital include ________, vitamin deficiencies, and laryngospasm. drowsiness
Severe uncontrolled pain, pre-existing CNS depression, porphyrias, severe respiratory disease with dyspnea or obstruction, and glaucoma or prostatic hypertrophy are __________ of phenobarbital. contraindications
Phenobarbital should not be taken with ______ or other CNS depressants. alcohol
Alcohol and other CNS depressants ________ barbiturate action. potentiate
Barbiturates taken with alcohol and other CNS depressants increase the risk of life-threatening ________ _________ or cardiac arrest. respiratory depression
Phenobarbital _________ the metabolism of many other drugs, ________ their effectiveness. increases; reducing
Barbiturates may effect ________ tests and increase serum phosphatase. bromsulphalein
Phenobarbital is in the pharmacologic class _________; GABAa receptor agonist. barbiturate
Kava and valerian may potentiate ________ while taking barbiturates. sedation
There is no specific _______ for barbiturate overdose. treatment
_________ may be effective in facilitating removal of phenobarbital from the body. Hemodialysis
Removal of a barbiturate drug may be accomplished by _______ _______ or use of activated charcoal. gastric lavage
Barbiturate overdose treatment is supportive and consists mainly of _______ _________ and mechanical ventilation. endotracheal intubation
Treatment of _______ and ________ may be necessary with barbiturate overdose. bradycardia; hypotension



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