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Genetic Vocab

QuestionAnswer
Heredity the passing of traits from parents to offspring
Trait a characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring
Purebred the offspring of many generations that have the same traits
Hybrid an organism that has two different alleles for a trait;an organism that is heterozygous for a particular trait
Offspring the product of the reproductive process of an animal. A child
Gene the set of information that controls a trait; a segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
Alleles the different forms of a gene
Dominant- an allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present
Recessive an allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
Phenotype an organism's physical appearance,or visible traits
Genotype an organism’s genetic makeup,or allele combinations
Homozygous having two identical allele for a trait
Heterozygous Having two different allele for a trait
Codominance a condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive
Meiosis the process that occurs in the formation of sex cells(sperm and egg) by which the number of chromosome is reduced by half
Haploid cells A cell that is the result of meiosis and has half the number of chromosomes as the original cell.
Diploid cells A cell that is the result of mitosis and has the same number of chromosomes as the original cell.
Mutations a change in a gene or chromosome
Insertion something inserted
Deletion where the DNA is lost during DNA replication
Substitution a person or thing taking place of another
Sex-linked gene a gene that is carried on the x or y chromosome
Carrier a person who has one recessive allele for a trait,but does not have the trait
Sex chromosome a pair of chromosome carrying genes that determine whether a person is male or female
Genetic disorder an abnormal condition that a person inherits through genes or chromosomes
Pedigree a chart or “family tree” that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait
Selective breeding the process of selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation
Inbreeding a selective breeding method in which two individuals with identical or similar sets of alleles are crossed
Hybridization a selective breeding method in which two genetically different individuals are crossed
Clone an organism that is genetically identical to the organism from which is was produced
Genetic Engineering the transfer of a gene from the DNA of one organism into another organism,in order to produce an organism with desired traits
Gene therapy the insertion of working copies of a gene into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder in an attempt to correct the disorder
Karyotype a picture of all the chromosomes in a cell
Genome is all the DNA in one cell of an organism Genetics-the scientific study of heredity
Fertilization the joining of a sperm and an egg
Probability a number that describe how likely it is that an event will occur
Messenger RNA RNA that copies the coded message from the DNA in the nucleus and carries the message into the cytoplasm
Transfer RNA RNA in the cytoplasm that carries an amino acid to the ribosome and adds it to the growing protein chain
Punnett Square a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
Created by: mjohnson1219