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40 Vocab Words

The 40 Vocab Words For Monnats Class

TermDefinition
Heredity The passing of phenotypic traits from parents to their offspring.
Trait A characteristic or quality that is in someone or something.
Purebred Relating to an animal, all of whose ancestors derive over many generations from a recognized breed.
Hybrid Offspring of two animals or plants of different breeds, varieties, species.
Offspring the product of the reproductive process of an animal.
Gene The unit of heredity; a linear sequence of nucleotides.
Alleles Any of several forms of a gene, usually arising through mutation.
Dominant A pair of alternative alleles that masks the effect of the other when both are present.
Recessive A pair of alternative alleles whose effect is masked by the activity of the second .
Phenotype The appearance of an organism resulting from the interaction of the genotype.
Genotype The genetic makeup of an organism or group of organisms.
Homozygous Having identical pairs of genes for any given pair of hereditary characteristics.
Heterozygous Having dissimilar pairs of genes for any hereditary characteristic.
Codominance Relating to two different alleles that are fully expressed in a heterozygous individual.
Meiosis Process of gamete formation, consisting of chromosome conjugation and two cell divisions.
Haploid cells A cell that is the result of meiosis and has half the number of chromosomes as the original cell.
Diploid cells A cell that is the result of mitosis and has the same number of chromosomes as the original cell.
Mutations Process of gamete formation, consisting of chromosome conjugation and two cell division.
Insertion The manner or place of attachment, as of an organ.
Deletion A type of chromosomal aberration in which a segment of the chromosome is removed or lost.
Substitution To replace (one or more elements or groups in a compound) by other elements or groups.
Sex-linked gene A gene located on a sex chromosome, usually the X-chromosome.
Carrier An individual possessing an unexpressed, recessive trait.
Sex chromosome A chromosome, differing in shape or function from other chromosomes, that determines the sex of an individual.
Genetic disorder A disease or condition caused by an absent or defective gene or by a chromosomal aberration, as in down syndrome.
Pedigree A genealogical table, chart, list, or record, especially of a purebred animal.
Selective breeding The intentional mating of two animals in an attempt to produce offspring with desirable characteristics or for the elimination of a trait
Inbreeding the mating of closely related individuals, as cousins, sire
Hybridization To form a double-stranded nucleic acid of two single strands of DNA or RNA, or one of each, by allowing the base pairs of the separate strands to form complementary bonds.
Clone A cell, cell product, or organism that is genetically identical to the unit or individual from which it was derived.
Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genome using biotechnology
Gene therapy Gene therapy is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid polymers into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.
Cross Pollination the mating of two genetically different plants of the same species. Usually, the term is used in reference to the crossing of two pure breeding (homozygous) plants.
DNA a large organic molecule that stores the genetic code for the synthesis of proteins. DNA is composed of sugars, phosphates and bases arranged in a double helix shaped molecular structure. Segments of DNA in chromosomes correspond to specific genes.
Evolution genetic change in a population of organisms that occurs over time. The term is also frequently used to refer to the appearance of a new species.
Gene Pool all of the genes in all of the individuals in a breeding population. More precisely, it is the collective genotype of a population.
Regulator Gene A gene that can initiate or block the functions of other genes. Regulator genes control the timing of production of a variety of chemicals in humans and other organisms. Shortly after conception, regulator genes work as master switches orchestrating the
Genome the full genetic complement of an individual (or of a species). In humans, it is estimated that each individual possesses approximately 2.9 billion base units in his or her DNA.See Human Genome Project.
Ovom a female sex cell or gamete.
Gametophyte the haploid multicellular stage in the alternation of generations life cycle of plants and algae.
Karyotype A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell
Created by: Silvereyes121