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Chap. 13 Key Terms

Autonomic Nervous System

TermDefinition
acetylcholine (Ach) primary neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system; also present in somatic neuromuscular junctions and at sympathetic preganglionic nerves
acetylcholinesterase (AchE) enzyme that degrades acetylcholine within the synaptic cleft, enhancing effects of the neurotransmitter
adrenergic relating to nerves that release norepinephrine or epinephrine
adrenergic antagonist drug that blocks the actions of the sympathetic nervous system
alpha receptor (a receptor) type of sub receptor found in the sympathetic nervous system
anticholinergic drug that blocks the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system
autonomic nervous system controls involuntary responses by influencing organs, glands, and smooth muscle
beta receptor type of sub receptor found in the sympathetic nervous system
catecholamines class of agents secreted in response to stress that include norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (adrenalin) and dopamine
central nervous system (CNS) receives and processes information; initiates action
cholinergic relating to nerves that release acetylcholine (Ach)
fight-or-flight response characteristic set of signs and symptoms produced when the sympathetic nervous system is activated
ganglionic synapse region where two neurons meet in a ganglion
monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzyme that destroys norepinephrine (NE) in the nerve terminal
muscarinic type of cholinergic receptor found in smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
myasthenia gravis motor disorder caused by a destruction of nicotinic receptors on skeletal muscles and characterized by profound muscular fatigue
nicotinic type of cholinergic receptor found in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
norepinephrine (NE) primary neurotransmitter in the sympathetic nervous sytem
parasympathetic nervous system portion of the autonomic nervous system that is active during periods of rest and that results in the rest or relaxation response
parasympathomimetic drug that mimics the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system
peripheral nervous system (PNS) transmits signals between the CNS and the rest of the body
postganglionic neuron neuron that receives an action potential from preganglionic neuron
preganglionic neuron neuron that creates an action potential and sends it to a postganglionic neuron
rest-and-digest response signs and symptoms produced when the parasympathetic nervous system is activated
somatic nervous system controls voluntary movements by activating skeletal muscles
sympathetic nervous system portion of the autonomic nervous system that is active during periods of stress and results in the fight-or-flight response
sympatholytic term referring to inhibition of the sympathetic nervous system; actions opposite of sympathomimetic functions in the body
sympathomimetic drug that stimulates or mimics the sympathetic nervous system
synapse junction between two neurons consisting of a presynaptic nerve, a synaptic cleft, and a postsynaptic nerve
synaptic transmission process by which a neurotransmitter reaches receptors to regenerate the action potential