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Tera's Pharm

LP8 Chapter(s) Review

Explain the autonomic nervous system in 1 word: Automatic
What does the CNS consist of ? brain (brain stem) and spinal cord
Differences between sympathetic and parasympathetic sympathetic = your "alert system" can quickly ready your body for emergencies. Parasympathetic = your "resting and digesting system" automatically maintains normal body functions without being aware of it.
what is your "alert system" also called? sympathetic
what is your "resting and digesting system" also called? parasympathetic
what are the four categories that can affect the ANS? -adrenergics, adrenergic blockers, cholinergics, cholinergic blockers
what do adrenergics do? mimic sympathetic responses
what do adrenergic blockers do? block sympathetic responses
what is another name for adrenergic drugs? sympathomimetic
what are the most commonly used drug subcategories of adrenergic blockers? alpha-blockers and beta-blockers
what do cholinergics do? mimic parasympathetic responses
what is another name for cholinergics? parasympathomimetic
what do cholinergic blockers do? block parasympathetic responses
what is another name for cholinergic blockers? anticholinergic
what are the chemical substances called that are released at the nerve endings? neurotransmitters
what are the uses of adrenergic blockers? -hypertension, -cardiac arrhythmias, -angina pectoris, -migraine headaches, -tremors
what are adrenergics used for? -restoring rhythm in cardiac arrest, -elevating blood pressure in shock, -constricting capillaries, -dilating bronchioles in acute asthma attacks, bronchospasm, or anaphylactic reaction, -ophthalmic procedures
what are the main actions of cholinergic drugs? -increase fluid flow, -increase peristalsis/bladder contraction, -increase muscle strength
what medication is used in cardiac arrest and anaphylaxis? epinephrine (Adrenalin or Epipen)
how is epinephrine generally administered? as an injection (subQ, IM or IV)
what cholinergic blocker is used for bradycardia? atropine
define antidepressant medication used to treat patients with various types of depression; sometimes called mood elevators
define anxiolytic antianxiety medication (tranquilizer used for the short-term treatment of anxiety disorders, neurosis, some psychosomatic disorders, and insomnia
define antimanic medication used to treat bipolar (sometimes called manic depression)
define antipsychotic major tranquilizers used to relieve the symptoms of psychoses or severe neuroses; sometimes called neuroleptics
what is the main medication used to treat bipolar? lithium
what are four different medications used to treat ADHD? Adderall, Vyvanse, Ritalin and Strattera
what medication is used to treat narcolepsy? Provigil
what are the 5 major categories of antidepressants? -Tricyclic, -MAOIs, -SSRIs, -SNRIs, -Heterocyclic
what does MAOI stand for? monamine oxidase inhibitors
what does SSRI stand for? selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
what does SNRI stand for? selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors
which category of antidepressant is most widely prescribed? SSRIs
list the 5 medications in the SSRI category: -citalopram (Celexa), -escitalopram (Lexapro), -fluoxetine (Prozac), -paroxetine (Paxil), -sertraline (Zoloft)
which category of antidepressants has life-threatening food and drug interactions? MAOIs
list 5 medications in the tricyclic category: -amitriptyline (Elavil), -desipramine (Norpramin), -doxepin (Sinequan), -imipramine (Tofranil), -nortriptyline (Pamelor)
which antidepressants are also used for chronic pain patients? duloxetine and venlafaxine
what are the four major antimanic medications? -lithium (Lithobid), -carbamazepine (Tegretol), -lamotrigine (Lamictal), -valproate (Depakene)
name a medication used preop of for short term procedures? diazepam (Valium)
what is Compazine prescribed for? Primarily for nausea and vomiting, also for agitation
what disease is Abilify and Haldol prescribed for? schizophrenia
what condition are Donepezil and Namenda prescribed for? Alzheimer's disease
what two medications are typically used for RLS? pramipexole (Mirapex), ropinirole (Requip), rotigotine (Neupro)
ANS stands for? autonomic nervous system
ANS means "involuntary", what two categories are involved in this system? sympathetic and parasympathetic
what do neurotransmitters do? send impulses to surrounding tissue or glands
what do adrenergics do to the body? increase blood pressure, pulse and respirations, constricts peripheral blood vessels
what effect does ephedrine have on the body? increases blood pressure
what is norepinephrine (Levophed) used for? hypotension and shock
what effect does dopamine have on the body? Increases blood pressure
T or F: If the clear window on an Epipen is obstructed, you can still use the product. False
T or F: Epipens can go through clothing if needed True
what effects do adrenergic blockers have on the body? decrease pulse, slightly decrease bp, causes vasodilation, reduces cardiac output by decreasing heart rate and force of concentration.
what is the adrenergic blocker drug propranolol (Inderal) mainly used for? headaches/migraines
what are some of the other uses of propranolol (Inderal)? angina, arrhythmias
what is the adrenergic blocker drug metoprolol (Toprol XL) used for? arrhythmias, angina, and hypertension
what is the adrenergic blocker drug carvediolol (Coreg) used for? arrhythmias, hypertension, and congestive heart failure.
what is the adrenergic blocker Timolol used for? glaucoma
what are the adrenergic blocker drugs that end in -zosin used for? HTN and BPH
what do alpha-blockers affect? vascular smooth muscle
what affect do cholinergics have on the body? increase fluid flow, increase peristalsis/bladder contraction, increase muscle strength, decreases respirations, decreases IOP
cholinergics release what? acetylcholine
what is the cholinergic drug bethanechol (Urecholine) used for? urinary retention
what is the cholinergic drug pilocarpine (Isopto carpine) used for? glaucoma
what affect do cholinergic blockers have on the body? decrease GI motility, dilate pupils, increase heart rate
what is the main medication used in the cholinergic blocker category? atropine
what is the cholinergic drug atropine used for? bradycardia, AV block, and pre-op
what is the cholinergic drug scopolamine (Transderm-scop) used for? motion sickness
what is the cholinergic drug Donnatal used for? IBS
what do psychotropic drugs have an effect on? behavior, mental processes, and emotions
what are the 5 classes of psychotropic drugs? CNS stimulants, antidepressants, anxiolytic, antimanic, antipsychotic
what is the cns stimulant caffeine citrate (Cafcit) used for? neonatal apnea
what is the cns stimulant drug NoDoz used for? promote wakefulness
what is the cns stimulant amphetamine mixtures (Adderall) used for? ADHD
what is the cns stimulant methylphenidate (Ritalin, Metadate ER, Concerta) used for? ADHD
what is the cns stimulant modafinil (Provigil) used for? narcolepsy
what is the name of a nonstimulant ADHD medication that is noncontrolled and also an SSRI? atomoxetine (Strattera)
what is the suspected reason for depression, and what are some of the chemicals involved? chemical imbalances in the brain, -Dopamine, -Serotonin, -Norepinephrine
which antidepressant category is the first line pick and also should not be used with antacids? SSRIs
what antidepressant is also used for chronic pain? Cymbalta
what was the first class created in antidepressants? tricyclics
Why are MAOIs not widely prescribed? There are many side effects and contraindications with foods and drugs
what are SNRIs used for? depression and chronic pain
what is the heterocyclic drug mirtazapine (Remeron) used for? anxiety and depression
what is the heterocyclic drug Trazodone used for? depression, mainly used in cases of severe pain. *Highly sedating*
what do antimanic agents need to be monitored with? Blood serum and EKGs
Lithium has many unwanted effects such as: hypothyroidism, cardiac arrhythmias, urine retention, tremors *toxicity can occur >2.0 mEq/mL
What tests need to be run with Lithium? TSH,CMP, EKG
what is the main category of anxiolytics? benzodiazepines
what do benzodiazepines treat? anxiety disorders, insomnia, alcohol withdrall
what is the most common antianxiety med? alprazolam (Xanax)
what is the antianxiety med lorazepam (Ativan) used for? agitation disorders
what is the antianxiety med midazolam (Versed) used for? pre-op sedation
what is the antianxiety med buspirone (BuSpar) used for? anxiety *non-sedative effect
what are antipsychotic drugs used for? relieving psychoses, nausea and vomiting
many psychotic conditions have an excess of dopamine, so how do antipsychotic drugs work? By blocking dopamine receptors
what are the three categories of antipsychotic drugs? phenothiazines, butyrophenone, atypical
what is the most common drug of the phenothiazines? chlorpromazine (Thorazine) *has many roles*
the antipsychotic drug, haloperidol (Haldol), treats what? schizophrenia, agitation, delusions
what does the atypical antipsychotics drug aripiprazole(Abilify) treat? schizophrenia
what does the atypical antipsychotics drug quetiapine (Seroquel) treat? acute mania, bipolar
what does the atypical antipsychotics drug risperidone (Risperdal) treat? schizophrenia, bipolar
what deficiency causes Parkinson's? lack of dopamine
what are anticonvulsants used for? to reduce the amount and severity of severity of seizures in patients with epilepsy
how many classes are there for anticonvulsants, and what are they? two, first generation and second generation
what is the 2nd generation anticonvulsant drug gabapentin (Neurontin) also used for? neuralgia
what is the 2nd generation anticonvulsant drug lamotrigine (Lamictal) also used for? bipolar disorder
what is the 2nd generation anticonvulsant drug topiramate (Topamax) also used for? migraines
what is the main antiparkinson drug used for dopamine replacement? Carbidopa-Levodopa (Sinemet)
what are two antiparkinson drugs that are dopamine agonists? Mirapex, Requip
what is used for an aniparkinson drug when Sinemet is less effective? Selegiline or Azilect~both are MAO-B inhibitors
what anticholinergic agent helps with tremors associated with parkinson's? Cogentin
What antiparkinson drug alters dopamine release? Amantadine
What types of antiparkinson drugs increase concentration of levodopa and dopamine? COMT inhibitors
patient education with 2nd generation anticonvulsants patients wear medical bracelets, need to keep good oral hygiene and brush carefully, and take med with food/milk.
What are some medications used for RLS? Mirapex, Requip, Neupro patch, gabapentin *take 1-3 hrs prior to bedtime
what are the two categories of alzheimer's disease? cholinesterase, NMDA receptor antagonists
what is an example of a alzheimer drug in the cholinesterase category? donepezil (Aricept)
what is an example of a alzheimer drug in the NMDA receptor antagonist category? memantine (Namenda)
Created by: JenSaw77



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