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Study Guide 40 Words

TermDefinition
Heredity The passing of traits from parent to offspring.
Trait A characteristic that an organism can pass to posses offspring through genes.
Purebred When an offspring is homozygous, or has 2 of the same genes, it´s considered purebred.
Hybrid When an offspring is heterozygous, or has 2 different alleles, it´s considered hybrid.
Offspring The product of the reproductive process of an animal. A child
Gene A unit of heredity that determines your genetic makeup, or what you look like, that were given to an offspring.
Alleles What genes are made up of.
Dominant The main allele that has power over the other.
Recessive The smaller allele that holds less power than the other.
Phenotype The physical genes that were received.
Genotype Your genetic makeup, or your genes inside your body from a parent.
Homozygous Having 2 of the same genes.
Heterozygous Having 2 different genes.
Codominance Neither dominant or recessive genes.
Meiosis Occurs during the formation of sex cells when the number of chromosomes is reduced by half.
Haploid cells A cell that is the result of meiosis and has half the number of chromosomes as the original cell.
Diploid cells A cell that is the result of mitosis and has the same number of chromosomes as the original cell.
Mutations A change in chromosomes or genes
Insertion Where one base pair of DNA is added.
Deletion Where one pair of DNA is subtracted.
Substitution Where one pair of DNA is substituted for another.
Sex-linked gene A gene that is carried on the X or Y chromosomes.
Carrier A person who has a recessive allele, for a trait, but does not possess that trait.
Sex chromosomes A pair of chromosome with genes, that determine whether you are a male or female.
Genetic disorder Abnormal condition that you inherit through chromosomes or genes.
Pedigree A chart that determines your family's particular traits.
Selective breeding Selecting a few organisms with wanted traits to work as parents of the next generation.
Inbreeding Breeding process in which two living things with similar sets of alleles are crossed.
Hybridinzation Breeding process in which two genetically different living things are crossed.
Clone A living thing that is identical from the living thing that produced it.
Genetic Engineering The transfer of a gene from the DNA of one organism to another, to produce another organism with wanted traits.
Gene therapy The addition of working copies of a gene into cells of a person with genetic disorder, trying to correct this disorder.
Chromosomes Made up of many gene joined together.
Karotype A picture of all chromosomes in a cell.
Genetic The scientific study of heredity
Messenger RNA Copies the coded message from the DNA in the nucleus, and carries the message to ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
Transfer RNA Carries amino acids to the ribosomes and adds them to the to the growing protein
Genetic Crossing The allele that each parent will pass on to its offspring based on probability.
Punnett Square a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result in a genetic cross.
Probability is a number that describes how likely it is that it will occur.
Created by: audreew