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rad bio ch 32

radiation biology quiz 1 ch 32

Radiobiology the study of the effects of ionizing radiation on biologic tissue
Early effects symptoms seen minutes or days after an exposure
Late effects symptoms seen months or years after an exposure
Examples of late effects of radiation leukemia, radiation induced cancers, tissue damage, shortened life span
What happens with radiation exposure at the atomic level? molecular change, abnormal cell growth and metabolism
What are the 5 principle molecule types in the body? water, protein, lipids, carbos, nucleic acid
Catabolism breaking down molecules into smaller units, releases energy
Anabolism production of large molecules from smaller parts, uses energy
What are the base pairs for DNA? Adenine – Thymine, Cytosine – Guanine
What are the base pairs or RNA? Adenine – Uracil, Cytosine – Guanine
What is cell proliferation? division (mitosis, meiosis)
Which type of division do somatic cells undergo? mitosis
According to biologists, what are the stages of mitosis? G1, S, G2
What are the normal stages of mitosis? prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
What is G1? the gap in growth between M (mitosis) and S (synthesis/replication)
What is the S phase? DNA replication
What is the G2 phase? post DNA synthesis phase of cell growth
During which stage of mitosis is DNA damage repaired? G1
Which is the least sensitive biologists stage of mitosis? S
When is incorrectly replicated DNA fixed? During the G2 phase
During which regular stage of mitosis are chromosomes analyzed for damage? metaphase
What do we call the division of genetic cells? meiosis
Meiosis 1 cell splits into 2 daughter cells
Meiosis 2 the daughter cells split into cellular material, without replicating
How many chromosomes are present at the end of meiosis 1? 46 (2n)
How many chromosomes are present at the end of meiosis 2? 23 (n)
Immature cells are: undifferentiated and radiosensitive
An example of an immature cell is: a stem cell
Mature cells are: differentiated, radioresistent
An example of a mature cell is: a specialized cell, tissues
What determines the radiosensitivity of an organ? function, maturation rate, inherent sensitivity
What is a macromolecule? a long chain of compounds
Chromosome a bundle of DNA
What happens when a base pair is knocked out? if it is no correctly repaired, the mutation will be replicated
What is the most sensitive stage or mitosis? M
Which stage of mitosis is least sensitive? S
Created by: annaluz87