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Pharm Ch. 38

Agents to Control Blood Glucose Levels Key Terms

TermDefinition
Diabetes Mellitus A metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose levels and altered metabolism of proteins and fats; associated with thickening of the basement membrane, leading to numerous complications
Adiponectin hormone produced by adipocytes that acts to increase insulin sensitivity, decrease the release of glucose from the liver, and protect the blood vessels from inflammatory changes
dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DDP-4) enzyme that quickly metabolizes glucagon-like polypeptide-1
endocannabinoid receptors receptors found in the adipose tissue, muscles, liver, satiety center, and GI tract that are part of a signaling system within the body to keep the body in a state of energy gain
glucagon-like polypeptide-1 (GLP-1) a peptide produced in the GI tract in response to carbohydrates that increases insulin release, decreases glucagon release, slows GI emptying, and stimulates the satiety center int he brain
glycogen storage form of glucose; can be broken down for rapid glucose level increases during times of stress
glycosuria presence of glucose in the urine
glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c Test) a blood glucose marker that provided a 3-month average of blood glucose levels
hyperglycemia elevated blood glucose levels (>106 mg/dL) leading to multiple signs and symptoms and abnormal metabolic pathways
hypoglycemia lower-than-normal blood sugar (<40 mg/dL); often results from imbalance between insulin or oral agents and patient's eating, activity, and stress
incretins peptides that are produced in the GI tract in response to food that help to modulate insulin and glucagon activity
insulin hormone produced by the beta cells in the pancreas; stimulates insulin receptor sites to move glucose into the cells; promotes storage of fat and glucose in the body
ketosis breakdown of fats for energy, resulting in an increase in ketones to be excreted from the body
polydipsia increased thirst; seen in diabetes when loss of fluid and increased tonicity of the blood lead the hypothalamic thirst center to make the patient feel thirsty
polyphagia increased hunger; sign of diabetes when cells cannot use glucose for energy and feel that they are starving, causing hunger
sulfonylureas oral antidiabetic agents used to stimulate the pancreas to release more insulin
Created by: Nurse Ratched
 

 



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