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SOCI 2013 Exam 4

Chapter 9&10

What is race? A category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, often on the basis of physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, and eye shape.
What is an ethic group? A collection of people distinguished, by others or by themselves, primarily on the basis of cultural or nationality characteristics.
The following 5 characteristics describe WHAT? 1) unique character traits 2) a sense of community 3) a feeling of ethnocentrism 4) ascribed membership from birth 5) territoriality Ethnic groups
True or False: Racial hierarchies exist. True
What is a dominant group? A group that is advantaged and has superior resources and rights is society.
What is a subordinate group? A group whose members, because of physical or cultural characteristics, are disadvantaged and subjected to unequal treatment by dominant groups and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination.
What is prejudice? A negative attitude based on faulty generalizations about members of selected racial and ethnic groups.
What are stereotypes? Over-generalizations about the appearance, behavior, or other characteristics of members of particular categories.
What is racism? A set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices that is used to justify the superior treatment of one racial or ethnic group and the inferior treatment of another racial or ethnic group.
What is ethnocentrism? It refers to the tendency to regard one's own culture and group as the standard while all other groups are seen as inferior.
What idea is the frustration-aggression hypothesis based on? Believing that people who are frustrated in their efforts to achieve a highly desired goal will respond with a pattern of their aggression toward others. The object of aggression becomes the scapegoat.
What is a scapegoat? A person or group that is incapable of offering resistance to the hostility or aggression of others.
What is prejudice believe to be a result of? Social learning; in other words, it is learned from OBSERVING and IMITATING significant others, such as parents and peers.
What is an authoritarian personality? A personality type characterized by excessive conformity, submissiveness to authority, intolerance insecurity, a high level of superstition , and rigid stereotypic thinking.
What is discrimination? An action or practice of dominant group members that have a harmful effect on members of a subordinate group.
What is a genocide? The deliberate, systematic killing of an entire people or nation.
What is individual discrimination? The behavior consisting of one-on-one acts by members of the dominant group that harm members of the subordinate group or their property.
What is institutional discrimination? The day-to-day practices of organizations and institutions that have a harmful impact on members of subordinate groups.
Define assimilation. A process by which members of subordinate racial and ethnic groups become absorbed into the dominate culture.
What is ethnic pluralism? The coexistence of a variety of distinct racial and ethnic groups within one society.
What is segregation? The spacial and social separation of categories of people by race, ethnicity, class, gender, and/or religion.
What is internal colonialism? A practice that occurs when members of a racial or ethnic group are conquered or colonized and forcibly placed under the economic and political control of the dominant group.
What is a split labor market? This is a term used to describe the division of the economy into two acres of employment: a primary sector and a secondary sector.
What is gendered racism? The interactive effect of racism and sexism on the exploration of women of color.
What is the theory of racial formation? The idea that actions of the government substantially define racial and ethnic relations in the United States.
Define sex. The biological and anatomical differences between males and females.
What are primary sex characteristics? The genitalia used in the reproductive process.
What are secondary sex characteristics? The physical traits (other than genitalia) that identify an individuals sex.
What is a hermaphrodite? A person in whom sexual differentiation is ambiguous or incomplete.
What is a transsexual? A person who believes that he or she was born with the body or the wrong sex.
What is a transvestite? A male who lives as a woman or a female who lives as a man but does NOT alter their genitalia.
Define sexual orientation. A person's preference for emotional-sexual relationships with members of the opposite sex, same sex, or both.
What is homophobia? An extreme prejudice and sometimes discriminatory actions directed at gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and others who are perceived as not being heterosexual.
Define gender. The culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males found in the meanings, beliefs, and practices associated with femininity and masculinity.
Define gender role. The attitudes, behavior, and activities that are socially defined as appropriate for each sex and are learned through the socialization process.
Define gender identity. A person's perception of the self as female or male.
What does body consciousness mean? It is a term that describes how a person perceives and feels about his or her body.
What is sexism? The subordination of one sex, usually females, based in the assumed superiority of the other sex.
What is patriarchy? A hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural,political,and economic structures are controlled by men.
What is matriarchy? A hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural,political,and economic structures are controlled by women.
What is gender bias? A behavior that shows favoritism toward one gender over the other.
Define pay gap. A term used to describe the disparity between women's and men's earnings.
What is comparable worth? The belief that wages ought to reflect the worth of a job, not the gender or race of the worker.
What is feminism? The belief that all people-both men and women- are equal and that they should be valued equally and have equal rights.
True or false: The RACE of an athlete IS a factor when it comes to sports. True
True or false: AFRICAN AMERICANS who competed in boxing matches in the late 1800s often had to agree to LOSE before they could obtain a match. True
True of false: RACIALLY linked genetic traits explain MANY of the differences among athletes. False
True or false: The way people are classified (regarding their race and ethnicity) is NOT important because it does NOT affect their access to employment,housing,social services, federal aid, and many other "public or privately valued goods." False
True of false: The term PREJUDICE can be broken down to its Latin roots to mean "Before Judgement." True
True or false: OVERT racism takes place in public. True
True or false: Racism tends to INTENSIFY in times of economic uncertainty and high rates of immigration. True
The following FOUR items describe what? 1) Isolate discrimination 2)Small-group discrimination 3) Direct institutionalized discrimination 4) Indirect institutionalized discrimination Joe R. Feagin's major types of discrimination.
The idea that contact between people from divergent groups should lead to favorable attitudes and behavior when certain factors are present describes what? The contact hypothesis
The idea that different ethnic groups must have 1) equal status 2) desire to pursue the same goals 3) cooperation to achieve each other's goals, and 4) positive feedback from each other are aspects of what? The contact hypothesis.
What cultural assimilation AKA acculturation? This occurs when members of an ethnic group adopt dominant-group traits such as language, dress, values, religion, and food preferences.
What is structural assimilation AKA integration? This occurs when members of the subordinate racial or ethnic group gain acceptance in everyday social interaction with members of the dominant group.
What is biological assimilation AKA amalgamation? This occurs when members of one group marry those of other social or ethnic groups.
What is psychological assimilation? This involves a change in racial or ethnic self-identification on the part of an individual.
What is DE JURE segregation? This refers to laws that systematically enforced the physical and social separation of African Americans in all areas of public life.
What is DE FACTO segregation? This refers to the racial separation and inequality enforced by custom. For example, residential segregation.
The term LATINO is used refer to whom? Males who trace their roots back to Spanish-speaking Latin America and the Iberian peninsula.
The term LATINA is used refer to whom? Females who trace their roots back to Spanish-speaking Latin America and the Iberian peninsula.
One of the MOST visible Latino athletes is: Albert Pujols
Created by: Razorbacks