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What is Immunology A branch of biomedical science that covers all aspects of the immune system in all organisms
What does immunology deals with? 1. The Physiological functioning of the immune system in both health & disease 2. Malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorder 3. The Physical, chemical & physiological charact. of the components of the immune system in Vitro, Situ, & vivo
What is immunity? The body's defense system against infectious disease. the immune system protects the body by recognizing and responding to antigens
What are antigens? substances (usually proteins) on the surface of cells, viruses, fungi or bacteria, non living substances such as toxins, chemicals, drugs can also be antigens
What are the name of the proteins in our body's cells that are antigens? and how do our immune system react to them? Human Leukocyte antigens (HLA) our immune system learns to see these antigens as normal and not react to them
What are some abnormal/unwanted functions of the immune system? 1. Low activity: Failure to respond & prevent infections/tumors 2. Over activity: body attacks & damages its own tissue 3. Tissue & organ rejection following transplantation 4.Disruption of healthy tissue during & following response to an infection/tumor
What are types of immunity? Innate immunity (Natural/nonspecific) .......................... Adaptive immunity (acquired/specific)
What are the characteristics of innate immunity 1. Present from birth 2. Operates against any substance 3. causes inflammation at the site of action 4. Non enhanced by prior exposure (respond to 2nd same as 1st response)
What are the characteristics of the adaptive immunity 1. Develops after an exposure 2. Defense Mechanism tailored to individual pathogens 3. Adds to ongoing innate immune response 4. Enhanced by prior exposure ( 2nd is better than 1st response)
How long does it take for an innate immunity respond compare to adaptive immunity response? and what type of organs exist in each one Innate: Hours up to 12 .. it has Epithelial barriers, phagocytes, NK cells .... Adaptive: Days up to 5 .. it has B lymphocytes, Antibodies, T lymphocytes, and effector T cells.
Effectors/barriers of the innate immunity 1. Mechanical- skin, mucus 2. Biochemical - Enzymes, pH, Free radicals, complement system 3. Cellular-monocytes, Macrophages, granulocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells (APCs)
Adaptive immunity ... Humoral immunity --> effectors: Ab .. B lymphocytes --> differentiate into plasma cells ---> Ab .. B lymphocytes --> memory B cells Cell-Mediated immunity --> effector: T Lymphocytes .. APC/T Lymphocytes --> TH1 --> Activates Macrophages, NK, Tc cells .. APC/T lymphocytes --> T2 --> B cells
Where do cells of the immune system arise from and When do each arise? They arise from progenitor cells in the: 1. Yolk sac and fetal liver spleen (Before birth) 2. Bone Marrow (After birth)
Where are immune cells present? Circulating in blood and lymph, lymphoid organs (thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes), and scattered in all tissues of the body
What is Hematopoiesis? The process by which the formed elements of blood are produced
What are the cells of the immune system? Phagocytic cells, Dendritic cells, peripheral blood lymphocytes
What are the 2 types of phagocytic cells and what is the phagocytic cells function 1. Monoclear phagocytes (I.) 2. Polymorphonuclear phagocytes(II.) ... They ingest antigens and enzymatically degrade them within their lysosomal compartment
What are the characteristics of the monoclear phagocytes? 1.Arise from progenitor cells in bone marrow 2.Possess receptors fo the Fc portion of lgG molecules 3.Posses receptors for components of complement 4.Progress thru several identifiable stages development: Monoblasts, promonocytes, monocytes, macrophages
What are monocytes? 10% of peripheral blood monoclear cells; leave the blood and accumulate at inflammatory sites; respond to chemotactic stimuli ; generally do not reenter the circulation
What are tissue macrophages? Found in all tissues; phagocytic function; known by various names (microglia , osteoblasts, kupffer cells, alveolar macrophages)
What is the role of phagocytic cells in immune respose? 1. Initiation: Antigen processing and presentation 2. Regulation: Enhancement/suppression 3. Effector function: Cytokine production; cytotoxicity
Where would you find macrophages? - Lymph node - spleen - bone marrow - Perivascular connective tissue - serous cavity (peritoneum, pleura), skin connective tissue, lung(aveolar macrophages) - Live(kupffer cells) Bone(osteoblasts) - CNS (Microglia cells) - Synovium(Type A lining cells)
Polymorphonuclear phagocytes/leulocytes include: 1. Neutrophils(PMNs) 2. Eosinophils 3. Basophils 4. Mast cells (basophil-like)
What are Neutrophils (PMNs) cells? at acute inflammatory reactions, responsible for initial host defense against invading microorganisms
What are Eosinophils? respond to parasites, and in allergic reactions
What are basophils cells? Found in the blood, release histamine into the blood stream
What are mast cells? Found in connective tissue and mucosal tissue
What are dendritic cells? Accessory cells that participate in many immune responses
There are 2 types of dendritic cells 1. Interdigitating dendritic cells (AKA dendritic cells) 2. Follicular dendritic cells
What are the characteristics of interdigitating dendritic cells (aka dendritic cells) 1.present in interstitium of most cells 2.abundant in T cell-rich areas of the lymph nodes & spleen 3.scattered throughout the epidermis (Langharns cells) 4.Arise from bone marrow 5.efficient antigen presenting cells (APC) --> stimulate naive T cells
What are the characteristics of Follicular dendritic cells 1. Not derived from bone marrow 2. present on germinal center of lymphoid follicles 3. Act as APC --> selection and activation of B cells 4. Trap antigens that are complexed to antibodies or complement
What are the 3 type of cells included in the peripheral blood lymphocytes? 1. B lymphocytes: bone marrow derived cells capable of producing antibodies (plasma cells) 2. T lymphocytes: produced in the bone marrow, mature in thymus. express T cell receptor are transmembrane proteins 3. Natural killer (NK) cells ---->
Natural killer (NK) cells characteristics 5. Release granzyme and perforin --> apoptosis of target cell 6. Mediators of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity 1. Morphologically similar to lymphocytes but lack markers of T or B cells 2. Can lyse a wide variety of target without prior sensitization 3. represent 5-15% circulating lymphocytes 4. part of the innate immune system(nonspecific)
Starting with neutrophils as most abundant white blood cells work your way down to the least abundent Neutrophils --> lymphocytes --> monocytes --> Eosinophils (many granules) --> basophils (many granules)
How does the monocytes enter the tissues? Through a process called extravasation and then get transformed to macrophages
What changes occur during the transition from monocytes to macrophages? 1. Cell enlarge 5-10X 2. Intracellular organelles increase in number and complexity 3. Cells acquire Increased phagocytic activity 4. Increase secretion of many soluble factors
What is the role of macrophage? 1. Phagocytosis and presenting of antigens to lymphocytes 2. Antimicrobial and anti-tumor 3. Secretion of soluble factors such as cytokines
What are macrophages activated by? The earlies activating agent is chemokines .. Also, phagocytosis it self
infected macrophages are phagocytosed by ______ , which "cross-present" antigens to _____ dendritic cells, T cells
Characteristics of the neutrophils *They are 50-70% of white blood cells *main function is phagocytosis and killing ingested microorganisms *Do not function and APCs * 1st cells to arrive at site of infection/injury *has primary and secondary granules
primary granules are electron dense and contain bactericidal enzymes
secondary granules Are smaller than primary and not electron condense.
characterisitcs of Eosinophils *When eosinophils bind to IgE on the surface of the worm, the cell is triggered to degranulate, releasing hydrolytic enzymes damaging the worm tegument *1-3% of circulating WBC *kinda phagocytic but don't act as APCs *Major role is against parasites *Kill by ADCC (antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity) by binding to parasites specifically IgE *stain red/orange <-----------
Major basic proteins (MBPs) unique to eosinophils and highly toxic to worms .. also causes the release of histamine from mast cells and basophils, and activate neutrophils and alveolar macrophages.
characteristics of basophils * upon re-exposure to the allergen, the allergen binds to IgE on the surface of the basophils resulting in degranulation during the effector phase *stain blue in basic dye *<1% of WBC *play a major role in allergic reaction when they release their granules (histamine, serotonin, heparin..) *bear Fc receptor for IgE *IgEs bind to surface of basophils during sensitization phase
Mast cells characteristics *Produce a variety of cytokines *TNF is produced and stored within the cytoplasm *Released from the bone marrow as undeffrentiated & stay like that till they enter the tissue *morphology & function similar to basophils, but clearly different lineage *bear Fc for IgE & contains many granules which also play a role in allergic response
characteristics of Dendritic cells *activates T cells and initiate immune respoonser *Liaison between the innate and adaptive immune systems *Originate from the bone marrow *Found in structural compartment of lymphoid organs *Found in blood stream *Antigen Presenting cell (APC) Most potent and effective in the body *capture antigens and bring it to the lymphoid organ
What are the 2 types of lymphocytes and give their characteristics **lymphoblast further differentiate to effector cells or memoory cells(B &T cells, plasma cells, T helper Cells, t cytotoxic cells) T and B lymphocytes. They are Motile & nonphagocytic cells which cannot be distinguished from each other morphologically. *Can extravasate & enter the tissues *Memory cels are long lived cells that reside in the G0 phase
Function of T lymphocytes Basically respond to antigens **(CD4+) secrete lymphokines which act on other cells involved in immune response **(CD8+) able to cause lysis of infected cells
Function of B lymphocytes produce antibodies in response to foreign proteins of bacteria, viruses, and tumor cells
What are antibodies specialized proteins that specifically recognize and bind to one particular protein. it's often a signal to other cells to engulf or kill the substance from the body
what gives te antibody its specificity for binding antigens? The variable region, containing 110-130 amino acids it includes the ends of light and heavy chains.
the constant region determines the mechanism used to destroy the antigen
What are the 5 major classes of antibodies? IgG,IgM,IgA,IgE,and IgD
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) differentiate into 2 things 1. LPC (Lymphoied progenitor cells) 2. MSC (Myeloid stem cells)
growth factor and ____ determine path cytokines
What are stromal cells? are supporting cells in BM and are major source of hematopoietic cytokines
There are 4 types colony stimulating factors, what are they? 1. Multi CSF (IL-3) 2. M-CSF (macrophage CSF) 3. G-CSF (Granulocyte CSF) 4. GM-CSF (Granulocyte monocyte CSF)
What does EPO (Erythropoietin) do? induces production of RBC
what are the primary lymphoid organs of the immune system? lymphocytes arise & mature in an antigen-dependent manner. it has : Bone Marrow: located in the middle of our bone.It generates precursor lymphoid cells for export to lymphoid tissue.Thymus: located infront of the upper chest, acts as nursery for developm
What are lymph nodes and what do they do? Oval structure located throughout the body; consist of outer cortex containing lymphoid follicles (B cell zone) T cells are located in inter-follicular areas. functions to filter lymph fluids, act as site for cellular interaction, contains accessory cells
What is spleen functions in ? has immune and non immune functions. It is site of hematopoiesis and site of cell-cell interactions for immune response. remove old or damaged platelets and RBC, and major site of phagocytosis of Ab-coated microbes
What is skin functions in ? active participant in host defense; has the capacity to generate and support local immune and inflammatory reactions against foreign antigens that enter the body via skin
What are some cells included in the skin? Keratinocytes, melanocytes, epidermal langerhans cells, and interepithelial T cells
How does langharns cells capture antigens? by forming a continuous epidermal meshwork after they capture them they migrate to draining lymph nodes where they act as APC
Created by: amiqnais



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