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Bushong Ch 6-9

Radiation Protection

The study of the effects of ionizing radiation on biologic tissue. Radiobiology
The functions of protein include Building of new tissue skin bones tendons hair & collagen Repair of injured or broken down tissue antibodies Intercellular messengers transfer information from one cell to another Composition of enzymes controls cells physiologic activities
Composed of glycerol and fatty acids Provides insulation, support and protection for organs Can be used for fuel Lipids
Provides energy –ATP Can be saccharides, monosaccharides or disaccharides Carbohydrates
List 2 Purines Adenine & Guanine
List 2 Pyrimidines Thymine & Cytosine
The basic unit of structure and function in all organisms Cell
Type of cells that go through Mitosis Somatic Cells
Type of cells that go through Meiosis Reproductive cells
List the phases of Mitosis Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, & Interphase (G1, S, G2)
Formed by nuclear membrane Contains nucleoplasm Control center of the cell Determines how the cell functions Contains chromatin which contains DNA Nucleus
Dense region of RNA in nucleus Nucleolus
Usually in the form of chromatin Contains genetic information Composed of DNA Thicker for cellular division Set number per species Chromosomes
Gel-like fluid which provides a medium for chemical reactions within the cell Cytoplasm
Materials in Cytoplasm move by Diffusion
Second largest organelle Double-layered outer membrane with inner folds called cristae Controls levels of water and other materials in the cell Recycles and decomposes proteins, fats, carbs, and forms urea Cell “powerhouse” Mitochondria
Energy-producing chemical reactions take place on Cristae
Paired cylindrical organelles near the nucleus Involved in cellular division Lie at right angles to each other Composed of nine tubes, each with three tubules Centrioles
Tubular network fused to nuclear membrane Goes through cytoplasm onto cell membrane Stores, separates and serves as cell’s transport system Endoplasmic Reticulum
The smooth ER contains Ribosomes False
The Rough ER contains Ribosomes True
Protein and lipid packaging plant Composed of 5-8 stacks of flattened sacs called cisternae Usually close to cell nucleus Brings hormones, enzymes, antibodies, etc. to cell surface so they can be excreted Golgi Apparatus
The "Protein Factory" Ribosomes
Digestive plant for protein, lipids and carbs Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal Vary in shape depending on particular process Lysosomes
Contain catalase that decomposes hydrogen peroxide Live for only a day Peroxisomes
Serves as a gateway and barrier Made of phospholipids and proteins Regulates exchange of vital substances between content of cell and the external environment Communicates with other cells to help body function Cell Membrane
Period of cell growth before mitosis Interphase
Nuclear membrane disappears and centrioles migrate to opposite sides Prophase
Mitotic spindle forms and chromosomes line up in the center – this is where radiation damage is seen Metaphase
Centromeres migrate to opposite sides of mitotic spindle Anaphase
Nuclear membrane re-forms Telophase
The most radiosensitive cells in the body Lympocytes and Spermatogonia
What is the “key” molecule in a cell? DNA
What is the ribosome’s function in a cell? Protein Synthesis
Two sets of chromosomes is called Diploid
One set of chromosomes is called Haploid
An increased metabolic rate does what to radiosensitivity? Increases
Defined as the sum of the weighted equivalent doses for all irradiated tissues or organs Effective Dose
Delivered continuously but at a lower dose Protracted
Dose is delivered in equal fractions and is not as effective because it allows cells to recover and repair Fractionated
Point mutations account for the late effects of radiation True
A single strand break creates point mutations True
Single strand breaks occur more often with high or low LET? Low
Double strand breaks occur more often with high or low LET? High
Alteration of the nitrogen base sequence on the DNA chain caused by the action of high-energy radiation directly on a DNA molecule is called? Mutation
Chemical unions created between atoms by the single sharing of one or more pairs of electrons are called? Covalent cross links
The more mature and specialized in performing functions a cell is, the less sensitive it is to radiation. True
Nonstochastic or deterministic somatic effects are also called Threshold, Nonlinear
Name the 3 stages of radiation damage. Prodromal, Latent, Manifest
Which stage of radiation damage involves nausea, vomiting, malaise and can last from hours to weeks Prodromal
Which stage of radiation damage involves a "period of well being" Latent
In which styage of radiation damage do symptoms return and intensify usually resulting in death Manifest
200-1000 rad (2-10 Gy) recovery within 2-4 weeks to 6 months if dose is not lethal; or slow death if dose was lethal describes HEMATOLOGIC OR HEMATOPOIETIC
Death due to infection because blood cells killed off or hemorrhage/bleeding out occurs in Hematopoietic or Hematologic
1000-5000 rad (10-50 Gy) with death in 4-10 days describes Gastrointestinal
Death of crypt cells caused dehydration, electrolyte imbalance and malnutrition occurs in Gastrointestinal
5000+ rad (50 Gy) with death in a matter of hours or days describes Central Nervous System
Death caused by elevated fluid content in brain occurs in Central Nervous System
What is LD 50/30 Whole body dose of radiation that will result in 50% of the population dying within 30 days
Loss of hair due to radiation exposure Epilation
In the reproductive system 200 Rads will produce temporary sterility
In the reproductive system 500 Rads will produce permanent sterility
Chromosome aberrations are considered Nonthreshold
The science that deals with the incidence, distribution and control of disease in a population – including cancers caused by radiation is called Epidemiology
Two different dose levels known formula is units of cases/population/dose describes Absolute Risk
observed cases – expected cases describes Excess Risk
Unknown dose formula is observed cases/expected cases describes Relative Risk
Carcinogenesis is a random occurrence that doesn't have a threshold. True
Mutagens are agents that increase the frequency of mutations
The gonad dose that, if received by every member of the population, would produce the total genetic effect on the population as the sum of the individual doses actually received describes Genetically Significant Dose
What is the dose limit for genetically significant dose 20 mrad/year for the US
Linear, nonthreshold dose response ='s Thyroid
Nonlinear, threshold dose response ='s Cataracts
Created by: jazzfan