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Psychology 3

Exam #3

A relatively permanent change in behavior acquired through experience learning
The process of learning by association; connecting two stimuli classical conditioning
Discovered the form of classical conditioning learning Ivan Pavlov
the gradual weakening and eventual disappearance of a conditioned response extinction
an emotional response to a particular stimulus acquired through classical conditioning conditioned emotional reactions
They conducted experiments for conditioned emotional reactions John Watson and Rosalie Rayner
What type of responses were John and Rosalie looking for? fear of the related stimulus
excessive fears of particular objects or situations phobia
a form of therapy that involves the systematic application of the principles of learning (therapy for phobias or problem behaviors) behavior therapy
responses that have satisfying effects are more likely to recur, whereas those that have unpleasant effects are less likely to recur law of effect
proposed the law of effect Edward Thorndike
strengthening of a response through the introduction of a stimulus after the response occurs positive reinforcement
strengthening of a response through the removal of a stimulus after the response occurs negative reinforcement
reinforces that are naturally rewarding because they satisfy basic biological needs or drives (food) primary reinforcers
the systematic application of learning principles to strengthen adaptive and weaken maladaptive behavior behavior modification
the process of mentally working through a problem until the sudden realization of a solution occurs insight learning
learning that occurs without apparent reinforcement and that is not displayed until reinforcement is provided latent learning
learning by observing and imitating the behavior of others observational learning (vicarious learning, modeling)
connection between desired behavior and the reinforcement contingency
Three basic processes that make memory possible encoding, storage, retrieval
the process of converting information into a form that can be stored in memory encoding
the process of retaining information in memory storage
the process of accessing and bringing into consciousness information stored in memory retrieval
How is information encoded acoustically? coded by sound
How is information encoded visually? coded by forming a mental picture
How is information encoded semantically? coded by meaning
cue associated with the original learning that facilitate the retrieval of memories retrieval cue
a temporary storage device for holding sensory memories sensory memory
A sensory store for holding a mental representation of a VISUAL image for a fraction of a second ICONIC memory
a sensory store for holding a mental representation of a SOUND for a few seconds after it registers in the ears ECHOIC memory
the memory subsystem that allows for retention and processing of newly acquired information for a maximum of 30 seconds short term memory
conducted research on short term memory George Miller
Explain the "Magic 7" barrier people can normally repeat a maximum of 6-7 single syllable words they have just heard
the process of extending retention of information held in short term memory by consciously repeating the information maintenance rehearsal
Tim Berners modeled the World Wide Web after? the human brain
What was Tim Berners displaying with his world wide web? semantic network
memory of facts and personal information that requires a conscious effort to bring to mind. "know that" declarative memory (explicit memory)
memory of how to do things that require motor or performance skills. "know how" procedural memory
A theory of forgetting that posits that memories consist of traces laid down in the brain that gradually deteriorate and fade away over time decay (trace) theory
A form of interference in which material learned earlier interferes with retention of newly acquired information proactive interference
a form of interference in which newly acquired information interferes with the retention of material learned earlier retroactive interference
An experience in which people are sure they know something but can't seem to bring it to mind tip of the tongue phenomenon
the tendency to recall items at the start or end of a list better than the items in the middle serial position
Freudian theory; a type of defense mechanism involving motivated forgetting of anxiety-evoking material repression
loss of memory of past events retrograde amnesia
loss or impairment of the ability to form or store new memories anterograde amnesia
What is the purpose of the Hippocampus? temporary storage bin for holding new memories until long term memory
a device for improving memory mnemonic
the process of mentally representing and manipulating information thinking
concepts with clearly defined rules for membership logical concepts
concepts with poorly defined or fuzzy rules for membership natural concepts
tendencies to rely on strategies that worked in similar situations in the past but that may not be appropriate to the present situation mental sets
a system of communication composed of symbols (words and hand signs) that are arranged according to a set of rules (grammar) to form meaningful expressions language
4 basic components of language phonemes, morphemes, syntax, semantics
the basic units of SOUND in a language PHONEMES
the smallest units of MEANING in a language MORPHEMES
the rules of grammar that determine how words are ordered within sentences or phrases to form meaningful expressions syntax
the set of rules governing the meaning of words semantics
the capacity to think and reason clearly and to act purposefully and effectively in adapting to the environment and pursuing one's goals intelligence
The type of intelligence test used today originated with the work of a Frenchman named _________ Alfred Binet
developed the most widely used intelligence tests in the US and Canada for all ages; deviation IQ David Wechsler
the stability of test scores over time reliability
the degree to which a test measures what it purports to measure validity
Self-fulfilling prophecy
organized knowledge structure or set beliefs about the world; reflect our experiences and expectancies memory schema
using pictures to remember words visual imagery
Created by: mcarraher16
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