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GED Physical Science

Lesson 1 Atoms and Molecules

atom the smallest unit of matter that can combine chemically with other matter and that cannot be broken down into smaller particles by chemical means
subatomic particles atoms are made of these; major parts are protons, neutrons and electrons
protons particles with a positive charge
neutrons particles with no charge
electrons particles with negative charge; these orbit the nucleus of an atom
ion an electrically charged atom or group of atoms formed by the loss or gain of one or more electrons, as a cation (positive ion) which is created by electron loss
elements substances that cannot be broken down into other substances; made of a single type of atom
chemical symbol an abbreviation or short representation of a chemical element; the symbols in the periodic table; made of one or two letters; some man-made elements have 3 letters
compounds substances composed of two or more elements chemically combined in a definite proportion.
chemical formulas a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using a single line of chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes
molecules ionic compounds
bonds when elements combine to form molecules, their constituents are held together by these
covalent bond one of the two main types of bonds; atoms share a pair of electrons; each atom contributing one electron
ionic bond one of the two main types of bonds; atoms gain or lose electrons to become ions, and the attraction between positively and negatively charged ions holds the compound together
nucleus of an atom made of a combination of protons and neutrons (except for hydrogen which has a single proton in its nucleus)
an electrically neutral atom an atom with an equal number of protons and electrons
negatively charged ion when an atom gains an electron
positively charged ion when an atom loses an electron
mixtures physical combinations of two or more substances that keep their own properties
Created by: jpiittmann