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Foundation in itegra

PHRM 6101

QuestionAnswer
What is Homeostasis The ability to maintain a constant internal environment in an ever changing outside world
Define a disease A disordered or incorrectly functioning organ, part, structure or system of the body
Define a disease A disordered or incorrectly functioning organ, part, structure or system of the body
What are some factors that lead to a disease 1. The effect of genetics or developmental errors 2. Nutritional deficiency 3. Infection, poisons 4. Toxicity
What are some examples of Homeostatically regulated functions? Body temp .. blood composition .. Concentration of O and CO Acid-base balance .. blood osmolarity .. blood pressure, caridac output .. respiratory rate .. secretion of endocrine .. rate of intracellular chemical reactions.
What are some factors that lead to a disease 1. The effect of genetics or developmental errors 2. Nutritional deficiency 3. Infection, poisons 4. Toxicity
What are some examples of Homeostatically regulated functions? Body temp .. blood composition .. Concentration of O and CO Acid-base balance .. blood osmolarity .. blood pressure, caridact output .. respiratory rate .. secretion of endocrine .. rate of intracellular chemical reactions.
How does our system work? made up of parts that interacts together and depends on each other .. if one fail everything else fails .. we have up to 200 different types of cells
Compensatory mechanism 1 fail everything else fails
What are the 3 interdependent components of control mechanism? 1. Receptors: Monitor the environment and respond to changes 2. Control center: determines set point which variables are maintained 3. Effectors: provide the means to respond to the stimulus and restore variables to the optimal pysiological range
Afferent Vs Efferent Pathways Afferent: input information to the control center .. Efferent : output the information from the control center
An organism is made up of ---> Organ systems (e.g digestive) --> Organs (e.g stomach) ---> Tissues (group of similar cells that perform the same function) ---> cells (smallest unit of life) ---> Organelles (DNA)
What are some functions of the cell 1. Obtain nutrients and Oxygen from the environment 2. use it in chemical reaction 3. Eliminate waste and by products 4. synthesis protein to build organelles 5. control exchange material 6. Produce new cells
Function of Plasma membrane Controls movement of molecules in and out of the cell. Also cell-cell signaling and adhesion
Mitochondria Generates ATP
Lysosomes Degrade material internalized by the cells and worn out membrane and organelles
Nuclear envelope Encloses the contents of the nucleus
Nucleolus Where most rRNA is synthesized
Nucleus Filled with DNA and RNA and proteins. Site of mRNA and tRNA synthesis
Smooth ER Synthesis Lipids and detoxifies hydrophobic compounds
Rough ER synthesis, processing and sorting of secreted proteins, lysosomal proteins, and certain membrane proteins
Golgi sorts secreted proteins synthesized in the Rough ER
Secretory Vesicles Store secreted proteins and fuse with plasma membrane to release their contents
Peroxisomes detoxify various molecules and breakdown fatty acids
Cytoskeletal forms network and bundles that support cellular membrane
Microvilli Increase surface area for absorption of nutrients
The exterior of the cell membrane have high number of ______ and the interior have high numbers of ______ Na+, K+
Transport method diffusion (through the lipid bilayer and protein channel) Passive down concentration gradient (high) --> (Low)
Carrier mediated transport (Faciliated diffusion) Passive down conc. gradient (high) --> (low)
Carrier mediated transport (1st active and 2nd active transport) Active against concentration gradients (Low) --> (high) in the 1st active transport it uses ATP
What is a signal? info that a cell gives or receives. usually converts from one form to another
The action of a signal are determined by the ______ to which it binds Effector
Signal transduction - Order of events Signal is generated .. Arrival to site of action (proximal or distal) .. binding to target (receptor enzyme) .. Action or effect (usually change in conformation of the target) .. the effects are terminated
What are some types of receptors Membrane receptors: G-protein coupled, recptor tyrocine kinase, Ligand-voltage gated ion channels .. Intracellular receptors: Nuclear receptors, steroid hormone receptors.
Agonist vs antagonist Agonist: binds to activate a receptor .. Antagonist: binds to receptor and block physiological function
What regulate signal transduction? Phosphyralation (Kinases) and dephosphorlylation (phosphatases)
What are the main drug targets? Proteins (receptors, Enzymes, Transporter proteins, structural proteins) .. Lipids (cell membrane lipids) ... Carbohydrates (cell surface carbohydrates, antigens and recognition molecules) ... and Nucleic Acids (DNA, RNA)
Created by: amiqnais