Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove Ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

PHRM6101

Altered cellular and tissue biology

QuestionAnswer
Pathophysiology The study of the physiology of abnormal states. In particular, the functional changes that accompany a disease
Pathology The study or diagnose of a disease through examination of organs, tissue, fluids, whole bodies
What are the 2 branches of medical pathology? 1. Anatomical (How do the anatomical structures change in a disease) 2. Clinical Pathology (lab values, basic mechanisms of disease-histological examination)
Neoplasia Cell adaptation
Apoptosis Cell death
Inflammation, wound healing Tissue adaptation
Necrosis Tissue Death
What are some causes of cell injury? Genetic abnormality .. Hypoxia .. Ishemia .. Nutritional imbalance .. Physical agents .. Chemical agents .. Immunologic reaction .. endogenous toxins
Following a stress, the way a cell reacts depends on? Type, duration and severity of the stress ... Type, state adaptability of the cell
Characteristics of reversible cell injury Mild stress ... short duration ... Mild morphological ... Biochemical changes
Characteristics of irreversible cell injury Stress is severe .., apoptosis ... Necrosis
What is Hydropic swelling A type of reversible cell injury caused of imbalance in process controlling Na+ concentration in Cytoplasm
Why does the cell swell and increase in size in hydropic swelling Because of the accumulation of water and Na+
What is Hypertrophy and what are some examples of it Adaptive response that increase the cell size .. examples: increased metabolic rate - Rise in ATP demand .. and Cell stimulation - increased in protein synthesis
What is Atrophy Decrease in cell size
What is Hyperplasia increase in cell # (Mitosis) .. and it's reversible
What is Metaplasia Change in cell type (Mature, differentiated) .. Think of when playing a guitar how the skin of the finger changes .. carries risk to malignant tranformation
What is Dysplasia Change in organization (immature, precancerous) due to partial loss of differentiation
Excessive of cortisol can lead to Cushing's syndrom
What are the characteristics of Dysplasia Anisocytosis (Cell unequal in size) ... Poikilocytosis (Abnormally shaped cell) .... Hyperchromatism (excessive Pigmentation) .... Presence of Mitotic figures (unusual # of cells that are currently dividing)
Characteristics of a cell undergoing apoptosis or necrosis --> ultrastructural change 1. Progressive loss of nuclear chromatin 2. Rupture of the nuclear membrane 3. Breakdown of the plasma membrane 4. Development of flocculent densities in mitochondria
What is Pyknosis condensation of chromatin and shrinkage of the nucleus
What is Karyorrhexis Fragmentation of the nucleus
What is Karyolysis Dissolution of the nucleus
What triggers apoptosis a slight damage to Mitochondria .. Also, Extrinsic Pathways and Interinsic pathways
what triggers nicrosis A severe damage to mitochondria .. caused only from external factors
What do Cytotoxic drugs do Induce cell death through interconnection between apoptotic and necrotic pathways
What is coagulative necrosis Seen in hypoxic environments, such as infaraction
What is Liquefactive necrosis Usually associated with cellular destruction and pus formation .. ischemia causes it too
Gummatous necrosis restricted to necrosis involving Spirochaetal infection
Gangrenous Necrosis In lower limbs, has lost its blood supply and under necrosis
Haemorrhagic Necrosis due to blockage of the venous drainage of an organ or tissue
Caseous Necrosis Specific form of coagulation necrosis caused by mycobacteria, fungi, and some foreign sybstances
Fatty necrosis Results from the action of lipases on fatty tissue
fibriboid necrosis Caused by immune mediated vascular drainage
Apoptosis Vs Necrosis Apoptois : Cells shrink and condense, Release small membrane-bound bodies, and small fragments are engulfed ... Necrosis: cell swell and burst, Damage surrounding area, Induce inflammation
What does ectoderm give rise to? skin and nervous system
What does mesoderm give rise to? bones and muscular tissues
What does endoderm give rise to? internal organ tissues
What is the epithelial tissue and its function Forms the covering or lining of free body surfaces both internal and external. Functions: protection, absorption, excretion, secretion
What are muscle tissues and their function Muscle cells are highly specialized for contraction
Connective tissue Support, anchor, and connect various parts of the body
Nervous tissue Specialized in the conduction of electrical impulses
What are dendrites and Axons Dendrites: highly branched fibers that bring impulses toward cell body .. Axons: single, unbranched fiber that carry info away from the cell body
What is an Asohyxial injury Failure of cell to receive oxygen .. suffocation
What is Regeneration Replacement of exact specialized structure and function .. get organized in the same structure as before the injury
What is repair (wound healing) injured tissue is replaced with connective tissue - result in scar formation
What are the 2 primary mechanisms of Regeneration? 1. Proliferation and differentiation of stem. 2. Dedefferntiation (specialized ---> unspecialized form)
Process of tissue repair contains 4 overlapping phases: 1. Hemostasis (platelet aggregation) 2. Inflammation (Erythema, swelling, warmth) 3. Proliferation (Granulation and contraction) 4. Remodeling (maturation)
How long is Hemostasis and what cells are involved in this Phase? occurs immediately .. cells involved are Platelets
How long is Inflammation and what cells are involved in this phase? 1-4 days .. Cells involved are neutrophils
How long is Proliferation and what cells are involved in this phase? 4-21 days .. Cells involved: Macrophages, Lymphocytes, Angiocytes, Neurocytes, Fibroblasts, keratinocytes
How long is Remodeling and what cells are involved in this phase? day 21-2 years .. cells involved : Fibrocytes
Created by: amiqnais