Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Degeneration Ischemi

Degeneration Ischemia

What is cellular degenration the accumulation of metabolites or other substances in a cell damaged by a preceding injury such as: drug induced, Toxic, traumatic, ischemic ....
What are the characteristics of changes in cells and tissue 1. abnormal structural change 2. decrease functions 3. Reversible (mild injury) e.g ischemia.. and irreversible (severe injury)
What are the sequential changes in Reversible cell injury 1. Decrease cellular ATP 2. Damage to plasma membrane sodium pumt 3. Reduced protein sythesis
What are some ultra structural changes on ER? Distention of cisternae
What are some ultra structural changes on Mitochondria? Swelling
What are some ultra structural changes on Plasma membrane ? loss of microville and focal projection of cytoplasm
What are some ultra structural changes on Nucleolus ? segregation of granular fibrillar components and reduced RNA synthesis
What is an example of irreversible cell injury? Mictochondrial dysfunction
Membrane cell damage can lead to : 1. Accelerated degradation of membrane phospholipids 2. Cytoskeletal damage 3. Breakdown of lipids 4. Reperfusion damage
What happens when activating Hydrolytic Enzymes cause enzymatic digestion of cellular component and induce nuclear changes hence cell death
Which predominantes in neurodegenrative disorder? what about ischemia? Necrosis or apoptosis in the first one necrosis, the second one apoptosis
What is ischemia? Cut off of blood flow circulation
What is anoxia? insufficient oxygen can be due to lowered hemoglobin, respiration effects, respiratory poisons
Lead as a chemical injury CNS toxin - interferes with neurotransmitters causing hyperactivity
Carbon monoxide as a chemical injury binds irreversibly to hemoglobin
Ethanol as a chemical injury Think of alcohol .. liver toxin --> interrupts protein transport
Mercury as a chemical injury Neurotoxin can cause bone deformities
Examples of genetic disease Sickle cell anemia (substitution of one amino acid in hemoglobin structure) .. Muscular Dystrophy (abnormal dystrophin protein expression results in muscle tissue dysfunction)
The patterns of cellular degeneration are grouped according to the dominant expression of injury as : I. Water overload II. Metabolite Overload III. Storage overload
Fat overload is part of metabolite overload, it is the accumulation of lipids by the following mechanisms: 1. Abnormally high levels of fat in diet 2. interference in oxidation of fats 3. Interference in protein production 4. Impairment in the release of lipoproteins
What is fatty degeneration: Vacuoles form large globules
Fatty infiltration (Steatosis) A single globule of fat displaces the nucleus to one side
Whay is Hyaline Degeneration: degeneration and accumulation of abnormally metabolized protein
Fibrinoid Protein accumulation that resembles coagulated fibrin, found inn degenerating blood vessel walls and connective tissue
Amyloidosis Protein accumulation characterized by deposition of proteinaceous material in the basement membrane
Mucopolysaccharidosis excessive accumulation of conjugate protein and carbohydrates normally found in secretion of epithelial cells, connective tissues and cartilage
What is glycogen degeneration? abnormally large amount of glycogen in the cytoplasm cells
exogenous pigmentation Following injection, inhalation or absorption from the gut of some foreign material
Endogenous pimentation due to altered metabolism of breakdown products of Hemoglobin --> can cause Jaundice, Melanin -->excessive radiation and effects of sunlight, and Fat.
What is calcification Can cause hardening of cells and altered membrane premeability
Dystophic calcification Calcium salts are deposited in degenerate and necrotic cells and tissue
Metastatic Calcification Excessive mobilization of calcium from skeleton into the blood
What is the life span of red blood cells? 120 days
Cellular aging all cells can replicate 40-60 times max and clones may not live as long as the parent cell
What is frailty Wasting syndrome of aging due to decreased protein synthesis, reduced muscle mass and lowered bone density
Alzheimer's disease cellular and network dysfunction ---> loss of memory
Parkinson's disease Degeneration of nigrostriatal neurons --> impaired movement
Lou Gherg's disease Increase in free radicals due to mutation in superoxide disumtase ---> death of motor neurons, muscle atrophy
Huntington Disease Polyglutamine repeats ---> impaired movement and cognitive functions
What are conformation of diagnosis to Alzheimers disease - Neuritic plaque containing amyloid beta (A beta) - Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of tau filaments - Brain atrophy
What characteristic of A beta- helps other protein fragments to gather into a plaque? That it's sticky or insoluble.........this pleque cause neuronal death
What is Tau protein? microtubule associated protein that acts as 3D "tie" for the microtubules
Loss of ATP generation by mitochondria initially results in reversible events: Na+/K+ ATPase membrane pumps leads to loss of ionic and osmotic gradients resulting in cell swelling and ER dilation ... Increase in anaeobic glycolysis --> glycogen depletion and lactic accumulation ... Reduced protein synthesis
How can you reverse the changes mentioned before? Reinstating O2 and blood flow
What does the transition to irreversible injury depends on? The extent of ATP depletion and membrane dysfunction especially of mitochondria
ATP depletion releases _____ that can induce _____ cytochrome c, apoptosis
What happens if you block O2 for 3-4 minutes from the brain and heart tissues? how about other tissues? Irreversible damage .. other tissues 20 min would cause irreversible damage
What is a stroke? occurs when blood vessels carrying oxygen and nutrients to the brain is either blocked by a clot or bursts
blockage of internal carotid artery results in: 1. blindness 2. incoordination 3. Weakness in the body
Blockage of arteries branching from the vertebral arteries 1. dizziness 2. Vertigo 3. double vision 4. weakness
What is calcium Hypothesis Massive Ca2+ entry into cells leads to cell death
Excitotoxic Hypothesis Excitatory amino acids (glutamate) toxicity leads to neuronal cell death
What happens when proteins are phosphorelated or dephosphorylated? their function is altered
Coronary heart disease Arteries that supply the heart with oxygen and blood are narrowed by build up of plaque and less blood gets through
What is Angina? pain or pressure that occurs because blood flow and oxygen to the heart is reduced
What is a heart attack ? blood flow to a part of the heart is completely blocked and cells begin to die from lack of oxygen
Atherosclerosis occurs in almost any artery in the body. but in the brain and heart it can be crucial. it's a slow and progressive disease
Reperfusion injury After an injury the cell won't function the same
Created by: amiqnais



Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards