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Psych Chapter 6

Chapter 6 defintions

Memory the brain function that allows us to retain information and bring it to mind
Memory Encoding the process of converting information into a form that can be stored in memory
Encoding converting information into a form usable in memory
Storage retaining information in memory
Retrieval bringing to mind information stored in memory
Encoding: Acoustically coded by sound: auditory signals into strings of recognizable sound
Encoding: Visually coded by forming a mental picture: memorizing a person
Encoding: Semantically coded by meaning: transforming sounds and images into meaningful words
Memory Storage the process of retaining information in memory
Memory Retrieval the process of accessing and bringing into consciousness information stored in memory
Retrieval Cues cues associated with the original learning that facilitate the retrieval of memories- cues associated with the situation in which the memories were originally formed
Three Stages of Memory a model of memory that posits three distinct stages of memory: sensory, short term, long term
Sensory Memory the storage system that holds memory of sensory impressions for a very short time: fraction of a second to 3 or 4 seconds
Sensory Register a temporary storage device for holding sensory memories- sensory impression disappears and is replaced by the next one
Iconic Memory a sensory store for holding a mental representation of a visual image for a fraction of a second
Eidetic Imagery a lingering mental representation of a visual image (photographic memory)- limited to children
Echoic Memory a sensory store for holding a mental representation of a sound for a few seconds after it registers in the ears ex: sound of an ambulance
Short Term Memory (STM) the memory subsystem that allows for retention and processing of newly acquired information for a maximum of about 30 seconds (working memory)- relies heavily on acoustic coding and some visual
Working Memory (WM) as the memory system permitting both short-term retention of information and manipulation of that information
Chunking the process of enhancing retention of a large amount of information by breaking it down into smaller, more easily recalled chunks
Maintenance Rehearsal the process of extending retention of information held in short term memory by consciously repeating the information
Long Term Memory (LTM) the memory subsystem responsible for long-term storage of information: days, weeks, lifetime
Consolidation the process of converting short-term memories into long term memories
Elaborative Rehearsal the process of transferring information from short term to long term memory by consciously focusing on the meaning of the information
Semantic Network Model a representation of the organizational structure of long term memory in terms of a network associated with concepts
Spreading Activation one word triggers many related concepts
Levels of Processing Theory the belief that how well or how long information is remembered depends on the depth of encoding or processing
Two Types of Long Term Memory: Declarative, Procedural
Declarative Memory Knowing that
Procedural Memory Knowing how
Declarative memory/Explicit memory memory of facts and personal information that requires a conscious effort to bring to mind
Semantic Memory memory of facts and general information about the world
Episodic memory/Autobiographical memory memory of personal experiences-not limited to humans
Retrospective Memory memory of past experiences or events and previously acquired information o Where you went to school, what you learned there
Prospective Memory memory of things one plans to do in the future
Procedural Memory memory of how to do things that require motor or performance skills- no conscious effort o Ride a bike, climb stairs, tie shoes o Motor or performance skills that cannot be explained in words easily
Implicit Memory memory accessed without conscious effort
Explicit Memory memory accessed through conscious effort o Hearing a familiar song my evoke feelings from the past
Constructionist theory a theory that holds that memory is not a replica of the past but a representation, or reconstruction of the past o Overtime a memory can become so distorted that it becomes a false memory
Schema organized knowledge structure or set of beliefs about the world
Flashbulb Memories enduring memories of emotionally charged events that seem permanently seared into the brain
Misinformation Effect a form of memory distortion that affects eyewitness testimony and that is caused by misinformation provided during the retention interval
Decay Theory/Trace Theory a theory of forgetting that posits(suggests) the memories consist of traces laid down in the brain that gradually deteriorate and fade away overtime
Ebbinghaus studied the retention of meaningless syllables, memorized weird words and forgot them overtime
Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve forgetting occurred rapidly in the first few hours after learning and then declined more gradually
Savings Method a method of testing memory retention by comparing the numbers of trails needed to learn material with the number of trials needed to relearn the material at a later time
Massed versus Spaced Practice Effect the tendency for retention of learned material to be greater with spaced practice than with massed practice o Retain more when you spread out your study sessions
Decay Theory Weakness does not account for some memories being well preserved overtime
Interference Theory the belief that forgetting is the result of the interference of memories with each other o Likely to forget your dinner since you eat every day, less likely to forget wedding
Retroactive Interference a form of interference in which newly acquired information interferes with retention of material learned earlier  Info you learned in 9 o’clock class fades by the next class
Proactive Interference a form of interference in which material learned earlier interferes with retention of newly acquired information  Forgetting area code, writing wrong year when writing a check
Serial Position Effect the tendency to recall items at the start or end of a list better than the items in the middle of the list
Primacy Effect the tendency to recall items better when they are learned first
Recency Effect the tendency to recall items better when they are learned last
Retrieval Theory the belief that forgetting is the result of failure to access stored memories
Tip of the Tongue (TOT) an experience in which people are sure they know something but cannot seem to bring it to mind
Repression In Freudian theory, a type of defense mechanism involving motivated forgetting of anxiety-evoking material
Recall Task such as an essay question, you are asked to reproduce info you have committed to memory
Free Recall a type of recall task in which individuals are asked to recall as many stored items as possible in any order
Serial Recall asked to recall a series of items or numbers in a particular order
Paired Recall associates recall- you are first asked to memorize pairs of items and then you are presented with one item in each pair and you are asked to recall the word it was paired with
Amnesia loss of memory
Retrograde Amnesia loss of memory of past events o Interferes with memory consolidation
Anterograde Amnesia loss or impairment of the ability to form or store new memories
Physical Amnesia blows to the head, degenerative brain diseases (Alzheimer’s), blockage of blood vessels to the brain, infectious diseases, chronic alcoholism
Dissociative Amnesia a psychologically based form of amnesia involving the “Splitting off” from memory of traumatic or troubling experiences
Engram Lashley’s term for the physical trace or etching of memory in the brain
Neuronal Network memory circuits in the brain that consist of complicated networks of nerve cells – esp cerebral cortex
Hippocampus seahorse-shaped structure in the forebrain that is essential to forming new memories of facts and general information and life experiences
Thalamus damage can result in amnesia
Amygdala plays an important part in encoding emotional experiences
Long Term Potentiation (LTP) the long term strengthening of neural connections as the result of repeated stimulation
Recognition Task a method of measuring memory retention that assesses the ability to select the correct answer from among a range of alternative answers o Multiple choice- retrieval cues provided
Created by: acorso3