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Bacteriology I

PHRM 6101

QuestionAnswer
Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes cell walls of eukaryotes have cellulose or chitins but NOT peptidoglycon. In Prokaroyotes cell wall contains peptidiglycon. Eukaryotes have linear chromosomes while prokaryotes have single circular chromosomes
Psychrophile growth range -40 C to +20 C
Mesophile Growth range +20C to +40C
Thermophile Growth range +40C to +85C
Halophile Salt tolerant
acidophile acid tolerant
aerobe air(oxygen) requring
Obligate anaerobe air (oxygen) poisoned
Autotrophs utilize inorganic material
Hetertrophs require organic material
Thermoduric endure high temperature
What benefit do bacteria have for being small? size effect surface volume ratio
what are the advantages of large Surface/Volume 1. diffusion rate 2. metabolic rate 3. Reproductive rate
What are shapes of bacteria Coccus, bacillus, coccobacillus, vibrio, spirillum, spirochete, square, star
Bacterial structure include Flagellum, pili, capsule, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, cell wall, lipopolysacchrides, teichoic acids, inclusions, spores.
What does flagella help with? Motility - movement
Describe Pili and it's function short protein appendages, smaller than flagella, help bacteria adhere to the surface
What is the F-pilus used for? conjugation and exchange of genetic information- genetic recombination
describe capsule or slime layer and its function Produced by bacteria, adheres bacteria to the surface and prevents phagocytosis
describe bacterial cell membrane has a phospholipid bilayer, water can penetrate and it's flexible. not strong, it ruptures easy
What's in the bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan polymer .. the sugars are NAM and NAG .. the amino acids cross NAM and NAG .. the D form of amino acid is used not the L
What's the difference between bacteria, plants, and fungi cell walls? Bacteria have peptidoglycan .. Plants have cellulose .. Fungi has chitin
What are the functions of the cell wall? 1. Maintain cells charac. and shape 2. Counter the effect of osmotic pressure 3. attachment site of bacteriophages 4. Provide rigid platform for surface appendages 5. cell division 6. Site of major antigenic determinants 7. Resistance to antibiotics
What are some antibiotics that effect the cell wall directly? Beta-lactem antibiotics: Penicillins and cephalosporins .. and glycopeptides: vancomycin
positive and negative gram staining difference Gram positive = Thick layer of peptidoglycan .. crystal violet is retained .. Color purple ............ Gram Negative = Thin Layer of peptidoglycan .. crystal violet is washed away .. color is reddish pink
Where would you find teichoic acids in gram positive bacteria and they contains: 1. glycerol phosphate and ribitol phosphate
of the gram stains, which one would include lipopolysacchride? gram negative
What is the function of Lipopolysacchride Toxic: kills mice, pigs, humans .. pyrogen = cause fever
Appearance in colonies for lipopolysacchrides (LPS) Mucoid = smooth (lots of LPS) and dry=rough (little LPS)
How is the DNA shaped in the cytoplasm of a bacteria DNA in circular, haploid
Advantages of 1N DNA over 2N DNA more efficient; grows quicker .. mutation allows adaptation
what is the cytoplasm compromised of? largely of water, together with proteins, nucleic acid, lipids, and small amounts of sugar and water
describe plasmids small, circular, extrachromosomal, double stranded DNA. capable of self replication and have genes to help with antibiotic resistance
does nucleoid have a membrane? NO
What are Prokaryotes specific characterstics 1. peptidoglycon cell wall 2. Teichoic acid 3. Lipopolysacchrides (LPS) 4. Endospores 5. Circular DNA 6. Plasmids 7. 70S ribosomes
What are some factors that effect growth and survival of bacteria? Temperature 37C ................. pH is 7.4 - 7.6 ............ Water/solute --> important for gram negative .......... Oxygen --> aerobes vs obligate anaerobes
Created by: amiqnais