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Fungi and Parasites

PHRM 6101

QuestionAnswer
Species that cause infections in immunocompromised individuals (opportunistic pathogens) 1. Candida ablicans 2. Aspergillus fumigatus 3. Cryptococcus Neoformans
Species that cause cutaneous infections 1. Trichophyton Rubrum 2. Microsporum canis 3. Epidemophyton floccosum
Species that are really bad Aspergillus flavus
What causes Candidiasis caused by candida ablicans
where do you find canidiasis On the Skin, GI tract, and vagina
What does candidiasis cause? 1. Mucosal infections : Vulvovaginitis, Thrush, Perleche 2. Skin/nail infections: thickening; diabetes 3. Systemic infections: Esophagus, lungs, kidney, liver
Treatment to Mucosal infections caused by Candidiasis Nystatin or Azole drugs (Anti fungal) eg. Ketoconazole
Treatment to systemic infections caused by candidiasis Ketoconazole or Amphotericin B
what is a thrush oral white plaque .. many HIV patients get it in their mouth
What is a perleche cracking/dryness of corners of mouth/lips
How do antifungals work? They inhibit the synthesis or bind ergosterol disrupting the membrane of the fungus
How do Nystatin work? Binds ergosterol and forms a pore in the fungal cell membrane causing ion K+ leakage
Azoles work Inhibit cytochrome P450 14-alpha-demethylase needed to form lanosterol (Precursor of ergosterol)
Amphotericin B Binds ergosterol and creates pores in the fungal cell membrane leading ions and other molecules to leak through the pores
Cryptococcus Neoformans Found in the soil .. systemic infections are: 1. Mild, Subclinical lung infection 2. Brain and meninges infection
Treatment of cryptococcus Neoformans Fluconazole used for prevention
Aspergillus fumigatus Found in the soil .. Systemic infections 1. Invasive: Lungs --> brain and GIT 2. Noninvasive: Fungus balls in lungs cavities
Treatment for Aspergillus Fumigatus Amphotericin B and surgical removal of fungal mass. AZOLES ARE NOT EFFECTIVE
Dermatophytes cause cutaneous fungal infection. They grow as hyphae within dead tissues and structures: skin, hair and nails
There are 3 generas of dermatophytes they all attack the skin 1. Trichophyton 2. Epidermophyton 3. Microsporum: does not infect nails
Tinea Pedis Athlete's foot .. caused by Trichophyton, Epidermophyton
Tinea Corporis Ring worm .. Epidermophyton, Trichophyton & Microsporum
Tinea Capitis Scalp Ringworm .. Trichophyton & Microsporum
Tinea Cruris Jock itch .. T. Rubrum
Tinea Unguium Onchomycosis (on the nail) .. T. Rubrum
Treatment for those Tineas include Topical and oral azoles
What are the 4 stages of Locomotion 1. Amoebas: Moves via pseudopodia 2. Flagellate: moves via flagella 3. Ciliates: moves via cilia (hair like projection arranged in rows) 4. Sporozoa: nonmotile obligate, intracellular parasites .. E.g plasmodium vivax & falciparum --> Malaria
What Protozoas do you have in the intestinals 1. Entamoeba histolyca 2. Giardia Lamblia 3. Cryptosporidium parvum
What protozoas are in the urogenital Trichomonas Vaginitis
What Protozoas are in blood and tissues 1. Plasmodium species 2. Toxoplasma gondii 3. Trypanosoma species 4. Leishmania species
what does Enatmoeba Histolytica cause? Amebic Dysentery (diarrhea blood) in the GI it causes ulceration of the colon, in the liver it causes abscesses
what does Giardia Lamblia cause? in the GI --> it attach to the upper portion of small intestine and do not invade the epithelium
what does Cryptosporidium parvum cause? in the GI --> Lower portion of the small intestines
Treatment of Intestinal protozoas (Entamoeba histolyca, Giardia Lamblia, Cryptospordium parvum) Metronidazole
What does Trichomonas vaginitis cause? Inflammation of mucosal tissue of the urogenital tracts. it's sexually transimited
What does Plasmodium species cause? - Plasmodium falciparum causes malaria -infects erythrocytes --> causes Rupture --> Release toxic substances --> high fever and hypertension
Treatment for plasmodium species Think of Malaria .. drug is Quinine and it's family .. primaquine, chloroquine etc
What causes Toxoplasma gondii cats
What causes Trypanosoma species T.brusei which causes sleeping sickness.
What causes Leishmania species Many causes it ---> it cause cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral lesions ---> scars
Created by: amiqnais
 

 



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